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Release time:2019-01-27
Star Trek

Star Trek


Star TrekFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchThis article is about the franchise. For the original television series, see Star Trek: The Original Series. For other uses, see Star Trek (disambiguation). Star TrekLogo as it appears in The Original SeriesCreated byGene RoddenberryOriginal workStar Trek: The Original SeriesPrint publicationsBook(s)List of reference booksList of technical manualsNovel(s)List of novelsComicsList of comicsMagazine(s)Star Trek: The MagazineStar Trek MagazineFilms and televisionFilm(s)The Original Series filmsThe Motion Picture(1979)II: The Wrath of Khan(1982)III: The Search for Spock(1984)IV: The Voyage Home(1986)V: The Final Frontier(1989)VI: The Undiscovered Country(1991)The Next Generation films Generations(1994)First Contact(1996)Insurrection(1998)Nemesis(2002)"Reboot" (Kelvin Timeline) films Star Trek(2009)Into Darkness(2013)Beyond(2016)Television seriesPremiere seriesThe Original Series(1966–69)Sequels to The Original Series The Next Generation(1987–94)Deep Space Nine(1993–99)Voyager(1995–2001)PicardPrequels to The Original Series Enterprise(2001–2005)Discovery(2017–)Section 31Animated seriesThe Animated Series(1973–74)Lower DecksTelevision short(s)Short Treks(2018–)GamesTraditionalList of gamesMiscellaneousTheme parksStar Trek AdventureStar Trek: The ExperienceExhibitsStar Trek: The ExhibitionStar Trek: Exploring New WorldsOfficial websitewww.startrek.comStar Trek is an American space operamedia franchisebased on the science fictiontelevision seriescreated by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series, simply called Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on the television network NBC. It followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk(William Shatner) and his crew aboard the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel, built by the United Federation of Planetsin the twenty-third century. The Star Trek canonof the franchise includes The Original Series, an animated series, five spin-off television series, the film franchise, and further adaptations in several media. In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio Hornblowernovels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, and westernssuch as the television series Wagon Train. These adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Seriesand six feature films. Four spin-off television series were eventually produced: Star Trek: The Next Generationfollowed the crew of a new starship Enterprise set a century after the original series; Star Trek: Deep Space Nineand Star Trek: Voyagerset contemporaneously with The Next Generation; and Star Trek: Enterpriseset before the original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The most recent Star Trek TV series, entitled Star Trek: Discovery, premiered on CBSand was later made available exclusively on the digital platform CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a "reboot" set in an alternate timeline, or "Kelvin Timeline," entitled simply Star Trek. This film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show; their adventures were continued in the sequel film, Star Trek Into Darkness(2013). The thirteenth film feature and sequel, Star Trek Beyond(2016), was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary. Star Trek has been a cult phenomenonfor decades.[1]Fans of the franchise are called Trekkiesor Trekkers. The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offsincluding games, figurines, novels, toys, and comics. Star Trek had a themed attractionin Las Vegasthat opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The series has its own full-fledged constructed language, Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions. As of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in revenue,[2]making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. Star Trek is noted for its cultural influencebeyond works of science fiction.[3]The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil rights stances.[4]The Original Series included one of television's first multiracial casts. Star Trek references may be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tideto the animated series South Park. Contents1 Background1.1 Conception and setting1.2 Mythology2 History and production2.1 Timeline2.2 Beginnings2.3 Rebirth2.4 After Roddenberry2.5 Reboot3 Television series3.1 The Original Series (1966–69)3.2 The Animated Series (1973–74)3.3 The Next Generation (1987–94)3.4 Deep Space Nine (1993–99)3.5 Voyager (1995–2001)3.6 Enterprise (2001–2005)3.7 Discovery (2017–present)3.8 Untitled Jean-Luc Picard TV series3.9 Lower Decks3.10 Untitled Philippa Georgiou TV series4 Feature films5 Television cast6 Merchandise6.1 Books6.2 Comics6.3 Games6.4 Magazines7 Cultural impact7.1 Parodies7.2 Notable fan fiction8 Awards and honors9 Corporate ownership10 See also11 Notes12 References13 Bibliography14 External linksBackgroundConception and settingThe Starfleet emblem as seen in the franchiseAs early as 1964, Gene Roddenberrydrafted a proposal for the science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Trainto the Stars"[5]—he privately told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale.[6] Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans[Note 1]and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets. The protagonists have altruisticvalues, and must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas. Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek represent allegoriesof contemporary cultural realities. Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s,[7]just as later spin-offs have reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, authoritarianism, imperialism, class warfare, economics, racism, religion, human rights, sexism, feminism, and the role of technology.[8]Roddenberry stated: "[By creating] a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network."[9]"If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they (the TV network) never really caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage. They actually would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"[10] Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not fully forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending violence. An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry also gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations.[11]His efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g., they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew.[12] MythologyThe central trio of Kirk, Spock, and McCoyfrom Star Trek: The Original Series was modeled on classical mythologicalstorytelling.[13] William Shatnersaid: There is a mythological component [to pop culture], especially with science fiction. It's people looking for answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable, the same as religion tends to do... If we accept the premise that it has a mythological element, then all the stuff about going out into space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human element to it – it's a hopeful vision. All these things offer hope and imaginative solutions for the future.[14] Richard Lutz wrote: The enduring popularity of Star Trek is due to the underlying mythologywhich binds fans together by virtue of their shared love of stories involving exploration, discovery, adventure and friendship that promote an egalitarian and peace loving society where technology and diversity are valued rather than feared and citizens work together for the greater good. Thus Star Trek offers a hopeful vision of the future and a template for our lives and our society that we can aspire to.[15] History and productionTimeline


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Celebrating DeForest Kelley's 99th Birthday

Born on January 20, 1920 -- 99 years ago today -- DeForest Kelley was that rarest of Hollywood rarities, a true gentleman, an old-school Southern fella who hailed from Georgia. He always insisted that anyone who met him call him “De.” He treated everyone – lifelong friends and newbie Star Trek fans excited just to be in his presence – with equal grace and warmth. And more than anything in the universe, he absolutely adored his beloved Carolyn, who’d been Mrs. DeForest Kelley for nearly 55 years when Kelley passed away on June 11, 1999. Oddly enough, before he landed his iconic Star Trek role as the cranky-but-goodhearted “country doctor,” Dr. Leonard “Bones" McCoy, Kelley had spent much of his career portraying nasty, humorless, tough-as-nails villains. Ironic, right?


Star Trek: The Original Series

Star Trek: The Original Series


Star TrekAlso known asStar Trek: The Original Series (retronym)GenreScience fictionAction adventureCreated byGene RoddenberryStarringWilliam ShatnerLeonard NimoyDeForest KelleyTheme music composerAlexander CourageOpening theme"Theme from Star Trek"Country of originUnited StatesOriginal language(s)EnglishNo. of seasons3No. of episodes79 (list of episodes)ProductionExecutive producer(s)Gene RoddenberryProducer(s)Gene L. CoonJohn Meredyth LucasFred FreibergerRunning time50 min[1]Production company(s)Desilu Productions (1966–1968) (seasons 1-2)Norway CorporationParamount Television (1968–1969) (seasons 2-3)DistributorParamount Television Sales (1969-1970) CBS Television Distribution[2]Budget$190,000 per episode (season 1) $185,000 per episode (season 2) $175,000 per episode (season 3)ReleaseOriginal networkNBC[3][4]Picture formatOriginal broadcasts:480i(4:3SDTV)Remastered edition:1080p(4:3 HDTV)Audio formatMonaural, Dolby Digital5.1(remasterededition), DTS-HD Master Audio7.1(Blu-ray)Original releaseSeptember 8, 1966 (1966-09-08) – June 3, 1969 (1969-06-03)ChronologyFollowed byStar Trek: The Animated SeriesRelated showsStar Trek TV seriesExternal linksStar Trek: The Original Series at StarTrek.comStar Trek is an American science fiction television seriescreated by Gene Roddenberrythat follows the adventures of the starship USS Enterprise (NCC-1701)and its crew. It later acquired the retronymof Star Trek: The Original Series (TOS) to distinguish the show within the media franchise that it began. The show is set in the Milky Way galaxy, roughly during the 2260s. The ship and crew are led by Captain James T. Kirk(William Shatner), First Officer and Science Officer Spock(Leonard Nimoy), and Chief Medical Officer Leonard McCoy(DeForest Kelley). Shatner's voice-over introduction during each episode's opening credits stated the starship's purpose: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise. Its five-year mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before. The series was produced from September 1966 to December 1967 by Norway Productionsand Desilu Productions, and by Paramount Televisionfrom January 1968 to June 1969. Star Trek aired on NBCfrom September 8, 1966, to June 3, 1969,[5]and was actually seen first on September 6, 1966, on Canada's CTVnetwork.[6]Star Trek's Nielsen ratingswhile on NBC were low, and the network canceled it after three seasons and 79 episodes. Several years later, the series became a bona fide hit in broadcast syndication, remaining so throughout the 1970s, achieving cult classicstatus and a developing influence on popular culture. Star Trek eventually spawned a franchise, consisting of six television series, thirteen feature films, numerous books, games, and toys, and is now widely considered one of the most popular and influential television series of all time.[7] The series contains significant elements of Space Western, as described by Roddenberry and the general audience.[8] Contents1 Creation2 Development3 Production3.1 Season 1 (1966–1967)3.2 Season 2 (1967–1968)3.3 Season 3 (1968–1969)3.4 Syndication3.5 Remastered edition4 Cast4.1 Characterizations4.2 Characters' cameo appearances in later series4.3 Notable guest appearances5 Episodes5.1 Notable episodes5.2 Leonard Nimoy: Star Trek Memories6 Broadcast history7 Music7.1 Theme tune7.2 Dramatic underscore7.3 Episodes with original music8 Awards9 Distribution9.1 Home media9.2 Online distribution10 Merchandising10.1 Action figures10.2 Comic books11 Cultural influence11.1 Parodies11.2 Fan productions12 Criticisms13 See also14 References15 External linksCreation[edit]On March 11, 1964, Gene Roddenberry, a long-time fan of science fiction, drafted a short treatment for a science-fiction television series that he called Star Trek.[9]This was to be set on board a large interstellar spaceshipnamed S.S. Yorktown in the 23rd century[10][11]bearing a crew dedicated to exploring the Milky WayGalaxy. Roddenberry noted a number of influences on his idea, some of which includes A. E. van Vogt's tales of the spaceship Space Beagle, Eric Frank Russell's Marathon series of stories, and the film Forbidden Planet(1956). Some have also drawn parallels with the television series Rocky Jones, Space Ranger(1954), a space operawhich included many of the elements that were integral to Star Trek—the organization, crew relationships, missions, part of the bridge layout, and some technology.[7]:24 Roddenberry also drew heavily from C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblowernovels that depict a daring sea captain who exercises broad discretionary authority on distant sea missions of noble purpose. He often humorously referred to Captain Kirk as "Horatio Hornblower in Space".[12] Roddenberry had extensive experience in writing for series about the Old Westthat had been popular television fare in the 1950s and 1960s. Armed with this background, the first draft characterized the new show as "Wagon Trainto the stars."[9][13]Like the familiar Wagon Train, each episode was to be a self-contained adventure story, set within the structure of a continuing voyage through space. Most future television and movie realizations of the franchise adhered to the "Wagon Train" paradigm of the continuing journey, with the notable exception of the serialized Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Discovery, and the third seasonof Star Trek: Enterprise. In Roddenberry's original concept, the protagonist was Captain Robert Aprilof the starship S.S. Yorktown. This character was developed into Captain Christopher Pike, first portrayed by Jeffrey Hunter. April is listed in the Star Trek Chronology, The Star Trek Encyclopediaand at startrek.com as the Enterprise's first commanding officer, preceding Captain Christopher Pike.[14][15][16]The character's only television/movie appearance is in the Star Trek: The Animated Seriesepisode "The Counter-Clock Incident"[17] Development[edit]In April 1964, Roddenberry presented the Star Trek draft to Desilu Productions, a leading independent television production company.[18]He met with Herbert F. Solow, Desilu's Director of Production. Solow saw promise in the idea and signed a three-year program-development contract with Roddenberry.[19]Lucille Ball, head of Desilu, was not familiar with the nature of the project, but she was instrumental in getting the pilot produced.[20] The idea was extensively revised and fleshed out during this time – "The Cage" pilot filmed in late 1964 differs in many respects from the March 1964 treatment. Solow, for example, added the "stardate" concept.[19] Desilu Productionshad a first look dealwith CBS.[21]Oscar Katz, Desilu's Vice President of Production, went with Roddenberry to pitch the series to the network.[22]They refused to purchase the show, as they already had a similar show in development, the 1965 Irwin Allenseries Lost in Space.[23] In May 1964, Solow, who previously worked at NBC, met with Grant Tinker, then head of the network's West Coast programming department. Tinker commissioned the first pilot – which became "The Cage".[18][24]NBC turned down the resulting pilot, stating that it was "too cerebral".[25]However, the NBC executives were still impressed with the concept, and they understood that its perceived faults had been partly because of the script that they had selected themselves.[12] NBC made the unusual decision to pay for a second pilot, using the script called "Where No Man Has Gone Before".[25]Only the character of Spock, played by Leonard Nimoy, was retained from the first pilot, and only two cast members, Majel Barrettand Nimoy, were carried forward into the series. This second pilot proved to be satisfactory to NBC, and the network selected Star Trek to be in its upcoming television schedule for the fall of 1966. The second pilot introduced most of the other main characters: Captain Kirk (William Shatner), Chief Engineer Lt. Commander Scott(James Doohan) and Lt. Sulu(George Takei), who served as a physicist on the ship in the second pilot but subsequently became a helmsman throughout the rest of the series. Paul Fixplayed Dr. Mark Piper in the second pilot; ship's doctor Leonard McCoy(DeForest Kelley) joined the cast when filming began for the first season, and he remained for the rest of the series, achieving billing as the third star of the series. Also joining the ship's permanent crew during the first season were the communications officer, Lt. Nyota Uhura(Nichelle Nichols), the first African-American woman to hold such an important role in an American television series;[26]the captain's yeoman, Janice Rand(Grace Lee Whitney), who departed midway through the first season; and Christine Chapel(Majel Barrett), Nurse and assistant to McCoy. Walter Koenigjoined the cast as Ensign Pavel Chekovin the series' second season. In February 1966, Star Trek was nearly cancelled by Desilu Productions, before airing the first episode. Desilu had gone from making just one half-hour show (The Lucy Show), to deficit financing a portion of two expensive hour-long shows, Mission: Impossibleand Star Trek.[27]Solow was able to convince Lucille Ballthat both shows should continue.[21] Production[edit]The original starship EnterpriseOnce the series was picked up by NBC the production moved to what was then Desilu ProductionsGower street location. It was previously the main studio complex used by RKO Picturesand is now part of the Paramount Pictureslot. The series used what are now stages 31 and 32.[21]The show's production staff included art director Matt Jefferies. Jefferies designed the starship Enterprise and most of its interiors.[28]His contributions to the series were honored in the name of the "Jefferies tube", an equipment shaft depicted in various Star Trek series. In addition to working with his brother, John Jefferies, to create the hand-held phaser weapons of Star Trek, Jefferies also developed the set design for the bridge of the Enterprise (which was based on an earlier design by Pato Guzman). Jefferies used his practical experience as an airman during World War IIand his knowledge of aircraft design to devise a sleek, functional and ergonomicbridge layout. The costume designer for Star Trek, Bill Theiss, created the striking look of the Starfleet uniformsfor the Enterprise, the costumes for female guest stars, and for various aliens, including the Klingons, Vulcans, Romulans, Tellarites, Andorians, and Gideonites among others. Artist and sculptor Wah Chang, who had worked for Walt Disney Productions, was hired to design and manufacture props: he created the flip-open communicator, often credited as having influenced the configuration of the portable version of the cellular telephone.[29]Chang also designed the portable sensing-recording-computing "tricorder" device, and various fictitious devices for the starship's engineering crew and its sick bay. As the series progressed, he helped to create various memorable aliens, such as the Gornand the Horta. Season 1 (1966–1967)[edit]Main article: Star Trek: The Original Series (season 1)William Shatner as Kirk in action, from the episode "Where No Man Has Gone Before", 1966NBC ordered 16 episodes of Star Trek, besides "Where No Man Has Gone Before".[25]The first regular episode of Star Trek, "The Man Trap",[30]aired on Thursday, September 8, 1966 from 8:30 to 9:30 as part of an NBC "sneak preview" block. Reviews were mixed; while The Philadelphia Inquirerand San Francisco Chronicleliked the new show, The New York Timesand The Boston Globewere less favorable,[31]and Varietypredicted that it "won't work", calling it "an incredible and dreary mess of confusion and complexities".[32]Debuting against mostly reruns, Star Trek easily won its time slot with a 40.6 share.[33]The following week against all-new programming, however, the show fell to second (29.4 share) behind CBS. It ranked 33rd (out of 94 programs) over the next two weeks, then the following two episodes ranked 51st in the ratings.[34][35] I am an avid fan of Star Trek, and would simply die if it was taken off the air. In my opinion it is the best show on television.—M.P., Oswego, New York, February 20, 1967[36] Title used for the first seasonFrederik Pohl, editor of Galaxy Science Fiction, wrote in February 1967 of his amazement that Star Trek's "regular shows were just as good" as the early episodes that won an award at Triconin September. Believing that the show would soon be cancelled because of low ratings, he lamented that it "made the mistake of appealing to a comparatively literate group", and urged readers to write letters to help save the show.[37]Star Trek's first-season ratings would in earlier years likely have caused NBC to cancel the show. The network had pioneered research into viewers' demographic profilesin the early 1960s, however, and, by 1967, it and other networks increasingly considered such data when making decisions;[38]:115 for example, CBS temporarily cancelled Gunsmokethat year because it had too many older and too few younger viewers.[31]Although Roddenberry later claimed that NBC was unaware of Star Trek's favorable demographics,[39]awareness of Star Trek's "quality" audience is what likely caused the network to retain the show after the first and second seasons.[38]:115 NBC instead decided to order 10 more new episodes for the first season, and order a second season in March 1967.[25][40]The network originally announced that the show would air at 7:30–8:30 pm Tuesday, but it was instead given an 8:30–9:30 pm Friday slot when the 1967–68 NBC schedule was released,[41]making watching it difficult for the young viewers that the show most attracted.[25] Season 2 (1967–1968)[edit]Main article: Star Trek: The Original Series (season 2)Spock, Kirk and the Enterprise, 1968.Star Trek's ratings continued to decline during the second season. Although Shatner expected the show to end after two seasons and began to prepare for other projects,[42]NBC nonetheless may have never seriously considered cancelling the show.[43][31]As early as January 1968, the Associated Press reported that Star Trek's chances for renewal for a third season were "excellent". The show had better ratings for NBC than ABC's competing Hondo, and the competing CBS programs (#3 Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C.and the first half-hour of the #12 CBS Friday Night Movie) were in the top 15 in the Nielsen ratings.[43][44]Again, demographics helped Star Trek survive.[38]:116 Contrary to popular belief among its fans, the show did not have a larger audience of young viewers than its competition while on NBC.[31]The network's research did, however, indicate that Star Trek had a "quality audience" including "upper-income, better-educated males", and other NBC shows had lower overall ratings.[38]:116[43]The show was unusual at the time in its serious discussion of contemporary societal issues in a futuristic context, unlike Lost in Spacewhich was more "campy" in nature.[45] Look! Look! It doesn't stop! They're lined up all the way down the street!—Norman Lunenfeld, NBC executive, on the mail trucks delivering Star Trek fans' letters[46] The enthusiasm of Star Trek's viewers surprised NBC.[31]The network had already received 29,000 fan letters for the show during its first season, more than for any other except The Monkees.[25]When rumors spread in late 1967 that Star Trek was at risk of cancellation, Roddenberry secretly began and funded an effort by Bjo Trimble, her husband John and other fansto persuade tens of thousands of viewers to write letters of support to save the program.[46][47]:377–394[48]Using the 4,000 names on a mailing list for a science-fiction convention, the Trimbles asked fans to write to NBC and ask ten others to also do so.[49]:128 NBC received almost 116,000 letters for the show between December 1967 and March 1968, including more than 52,000 in February alone;[50][51][25]according to an NBC executive, the network received more than one million pieces of mail but only disclosed the 116,000 figure.[46]Newspaper columnists encouraged readers to write letters to help save what one called "the best science fiction show on the air".[52]More than 200 Caltechstudents marched to NBC's Burbank, Californiastudio to support Star Trek in January 1968, carrying signs such as "DraftSpock" and "Vulcan Power".[53]Berkeleyand MITstudents organized similar protests in San Francisco and New York.[52] The letters supporting Star Trek, whose authors included New York State GovernorNelson Rockefeller,[54]were different in both quantity and quality from most mail that television networks receive: The show, according to the 6,000 letters it draws a week (more than any other in television), is watched by scientists, museum curators, psychiatrists, doctors, university professors and other highbrows. The Smithsonian Institutionasked for a print of the show for its archives, the only show so honored.[52] In addition: Much of the mail came from doctors, scientists, teachers, and other professional people, and was for the most part literate–and written on good stationery. And if there is anything a network wants almost as much as a high Nielsen ratings it is the prestige of a show that appeals to the upper middle class and high brow audiences.[42] And now an announcement of interest to all viewers of Star Trek. We are pleased to tell you that Star Trek will continue to be seen on NBC Television. We know you will be looking forward to seeing the weekly adventure in space on Star Trek.—NBC announcer, March 1, 1968[50][54][31] NBC—which used such anecdotes in much of its publicity for the show—made the unusual decision to announce on television, after the episode "The Omega Glory" on March 1, 1968, that the series had been renewed.[38]:116–117[54]The announcement implied a request to stop writing,[46]but instead caused fans to send letters of thanks in similar numbers.[55] Season 3 (1968–1969)[edit]Main article: Star Trek: The Original Series (season 3)"Spock's Brain" was the first episode of the third season.NBC at first planned to move Star Trek to Mondays for the show's third season, likely in hopes of increasing its audience after the enormous letter campaign that surprised the network.[31]But in March 1968, NBC instead moved the show to 10:00 pm Friday night, an hour undesirable for its younger audience,[48][56]so as not to conflict with the highly successful Rowan & Martin's Laugh-Inon Monday evenings,[57]from whose time slot Laugh-In producer George Schlatterhad angrily demanded it not be rescheduled. In addition to the undesirable time slot, Star Trek was now being seen on only 181 of NBC's 210 affiliates.[58] Roddenberry was frustrated, and complained, "If the network wants to kill us, it couldn't make a better move."[48]He attempted to persuade NBC to give Star Trek a better day and hour, but was not successful. As a result of this and his own growing exhaustion, he chose to withdraw from the stress of the daily production of Star Trek, though he remained nominally in charge as its "executive producer".[59]Roddenberry reduced his direct involvement in Star Trek before the start of the 1968–69 television season, and was replaced by Fred Freibergeras the producer of the television series. NBC next reduced Star Trek's budget by a significant amount per episode, as the per-minute commercial price had dropped from $39,000 to $36,000 compared to the Season 2 time slot.[60]This caused what many perceive as a significant decline in quality for the 1968–69 season. William Shatner felt that the main characters became increasingly compromised or exaggerated while being involved in growingly improbable story lines.[61]Leonard Nimoy added that mercenary concerns came to predominate.[62]Associate Producer Bob Justman, who left during the third season, says that the budget cuts caused the crew to become necessarily limited in the type of filming that could be done, such as outdoor work,[63]with only one episode, "The Paradise Syndrome", shot largely outdoors. Nichelle Nichols described the budget cutting during the final year as an intentional effort to kill off Star Trek: While NBC paid lip service to expanding Star Trek's audience, it [now] slashed our production budget until it was actually ten percent lower than it had been in our first season ... This is why in the third season you saw fewer outdoor location shots, for example. Top writers, top guest stars, top anything you needed was harder to come by. Thus, Star Trek's demise became a self-fulfilling prophecy. And I can assure you, that is exactly as it was meant to be.[64] The last day of filming for Star Trek was January 9, 1969,[25]and after 79 episodes[65]NBC cancelled the show in February despite fans' attempt at another letter-writing campaign.[31]One newspaper columnist advised a protesting viewer: You Star Trek fans have fought the "good fight," but the show has been cancelled and there's nothing to be done now.[66] In 2011, the decision to cancel Star Trek by NBC was ranked #4 on the TV Guide Networkspecial, 25 Biggest TV Blunders 2.[67] Syndication[edit]Surprisingly, one show no longer programmed by a network but syndicated to local television stations (Star Trek) sometimes appeared among the top five favorites in areas where the show is carried.—"Students rate television", 1971[68] Although many of the third season's episodes were considered of poor quality, it gave Star Trek enough episodes for television syndication.[69]Most shows require at least four seasonsfor syndication, because otherwise there are not enough episodes for daily stripping. Kaiser Broadcasting, however, purchased syndication rights for Star Trek during the first season for its stations in several large cities. The company arranged the unusual deal because it saw the show as effective counterprogrammingagainst the Big Three networks' 6 pm evening news programs.[70]:138[25]Paramount began advertising the reruns in trade pressin March 1969;[71]as Kaiser's ratings were good, other stations, such as WPIXin New York City and WKBS in Philadelphia, also purchased the episodes[72]:91–92 for similar counterprogramming.[38]:121 Through syndication, Star Trek found a larger audience than it had on NBC, becoming a cult classic.[73][70]:138–139 Airing the show in the late afternoon or early evening attracted many new viewers, often young.[74]By 1970, Paramount's trade advertisements claimed that the show had significantly improved its stations' ratings,[71]and the Los Angeles Times commented on Star Trek's ability to "acquire the most enviable ratings in the syndication field".[38]:121 By 1972, what the Associated Press described as "the show that won't die" aired in more than 100 American cities and 60 other countries, and more than 3,000 fans attended the first Star Trek conventionin New York City.[75][74] Since that dark day in 1969 when NBC brought the programming hammer down on Star Trek, there probably hasn't been a 24-hour period when the original program, one of the original episodes, wasn't being aired somewhere.—Chicago Tribune, 1987[76] Fans of the show became increasingly organized, gathering at conventions to trade merchandise, meet actors from the show, and watch screenings of old episodes. Such fans came to be known as "trekkies",[73]who were noted (and often ridiculed) for their extreme devotion to the show and their encyclopedic knowledge of every episode.[77]Unlike other syndicated reruns, prices for Star Trek rose, instead of falling, over time,[38]:122 because fans enjoyed rewatching each episode many, often dozens of, times;[78][79][73][80]Peoplein 1977 stated that the show "threatens to rerun until the universe crawls back into its little black hole".[81]By 1986, 17 years after entering syndication, Star Trek was the most popular syndicated series;[82]by 1987, Paramount made $1 million from each episode;[25]and by 1994, the reruns still aired in 94% of the United States.[83] From September 1 to December 24, 1998, the Sci-Fi Channel broadcast a "Special Edition" of all The Original Series episodes in an expanded 90-minute format hosted by William Shatner. About 3–4 minutes of each episode that had been edited out of the syndicated shows for additional commercial time were restored for the "Special Edition" broadcast. In addition to introductory and post-episode commentary by Shatner, the episodes included interviews with members of the regular production team and cast, writers, guest stars, and critics (titled as "Star Trek Insights"). The episodes were broadcast in the original broadcast sequence, followed by "The Cage," to which a full 105-minute segment was devoted. (For details on each episode's original airdate, see List of Star Trek: The Original Series episodes.) Leonard Nimoy hosted a second run from December 28, 1998 to March 24, 1999, but not all the episodes were broadcast because the show was abruptly cancelled before completion.[citation needed][original research?] Remastered edition[edit]In September 2006, CBS Paramount Domestic Television(now known as CBS Television Distribution, the current rights holders for the Star Trek television franchises) began syndication of an enhanced version of Star Trek: The Original Series in high definitionwith new CGIvisual effects.[84] Under the direction of Star Trek producer David Rossi, who consulted with Mike and Denise Okuda, the visual and special effects were recreated to give Star Trek: The Original Series a more modern look. Special attention was given to such elements as the Enterprise, alien planets and their images depicted from space, planets seen from orbit, alien spacecraft, and technology such as computer readouts, viewscreen images, and phaser beams. The restoration and enhancement was performed by CBS Digital. All live-action footage was scanned in high definition from its first-generation 35 mm film elements. While it was possible to retouch and remaster some visual effects, all new exterior ship, space and planet shots were recreated under the supervision of Emmy-nominated visual effects supervisor Niel Wray. As noted in the "making of" DVD feature, first generation "original camera negatives" were used for all live-action footage but not for external shots of the ship and planets. Notable changes include new space shots with a CGI Enterprise, and other new models (for example, a Gornship is shown in "Arena"), redone mattebackground shots, and other minor touches such as tidying up viewscreens. A small number of scenes were also recomposed, and sometimes new actors were placed into the background of shots.[85]The opening theme music was also re-recorded in digital stereo. The first episode to be released to syndication was "Balance of Terror" on the weekend of September 16, 2006. Episodes were released at the rate of about one a week and broadcast in a 4:3 aspect ratio. Despite the HDremastering, CBS chose to deliver the broadcast syndication package in Standard Definition (SD TV). The HD format was made commercially available through Blu-ray, or by download such as iTunes, Netflix, and Xbox Live.[86] While the CGI shots were mastered in a 16:9 aspect ratio for future applications, they were initially broadcast in the U.S. and Canada – along with the live-action footage – in a 4:3 aspect ratio to respect the show's original composition. If the producers were to choose to reformat the entire show for the 16:9 ratio, live-action footage would be cropped, significantly reducing the height of the original image. On July 26, 2007, CBS Home Entertainment(with distribution by Paramount Home Entertainment) announced that the remastered episodes of TOS would be released on an HD DVD/DVD hybrid format. Season 1 was released on November 20, 2007. Season 2 had been scheduled for release in the summer of 2008, but it was cancelled when Toshiba(which had been helping finance the remastering of the show) pulled out of the HD DVD business.[87]On August 5, 2008, the remastered Season 2 was released on DVD only.[88]For this release, CBS and Paramount used discs without any disc art, making them look like the "Season 1 Remastered" HD DVD/DVD combo discs, despite having content only on one side.[citation needed] Season 3 was released on DVD only on November 18, 2008.[89]On February 17, 2009 – Paramount announced the Season 1 of TOS on Blu-ray Discfor a May release to coincide with the new feature film coming from Paramount.[90]The second season was released in a seven disc set on Blu-ray in the U.S. on September 22, 2009.[91]The third season was released on Blu-ray in the U.S. on December 15.[92]With the release of the "Alternate Realities" box set, remastered Original Series episodes were included in a multi-series compilation for the first time. It was unknown if future compilation releases would exclusively use the remastered episodes or not.[93] In region 2 and region 4, all three seasons of the remastered Original Series became available on DVD in the slimline edition (in the UK and Germany in steelbook editions) on April 27, 2009 as well as the first season in Blu-ray.[citation needed] Cast[edit]Main article: List of Star Trek: The Original Series cast members


Star Trek: Discovery

Star Trek: DiscoveryS1 E1The Vulcan Hello Series premiere. While patrolling Federation space, the U.S.S. Shenzhou encounters an object of unknown origin, putting First Officer Michael Burnham (Sonequa Martin-Green) to her greatest test yet. Starring Sonequa Martin-Green, Michelle Yeoh, Doug Jones. (TV-14 V)


Star Trek

di genere fantascientificoche ha avuto inizio nel 1966con una serie televisiva omonimaideata da Gene Roddenberry, divenuta in seguito tra le più popolari nella storia della televisione.[1][2][3]Dal successo della prima serie sono derivate nel corso di oltre cinquant'anni altre sei serie televisive (di cui una animata) e tredici pellicole cinematografiche. Una nuova serie televisiva ha debuttato nel 2017.[4] Star Trek narra delle vicende degli umani del futuro, appartenenti a una Federazione dei Pianeti Unitiche riunisce sotto un unico governo numerosi popoli di sistemi stellaridiversi e delle loro avventure nell'esplorazione del cosmo"alla ricerca di nuove forme di vita e di civiltà, fino ad arrivare là dove nessun uomo è mai giunto prima".[5] L'universo fantascientifico di Star Trek con i suoi personaggi è conosciuto in tutto il mondo e ha dato origine a una comunità di appassionatisenza precedenti.[6]Tutte le serie televisive e i film sono stati doppiatiin italiano. A Star Trek sono stati assegnati vari premi[7]tra cui 33 Emmy,[8]5 premi Hugo,[9]vari Saturn Awarde un Oscarsu 14 candidature ottenute dai film.[7]


46th Anniversary of Star Trek's 1st Broadcast

OK, I admit it, I am a die-hard Trekkie. I grew up watching endless reruns of Star Trek, my imagination completely immersed in Gene Roddenberry’s brilliant creation. Today’s Star Trek doodle is, and Mr. Spock said it best, “Fascinating.” Built using modern web technologies, this beautiful, interactive, multi-scene doodle takes all of us... where no one has gone before. Every scene has hidden surprises you absolutely have to discover for yourself, especially the fate of the Redshirt. A team of outstanding designers and engineers, and numerous Star Trek fans at Google, got really creative with this one. Working on search at Google has brought me ever so close to realizing my childhood dream of turning science fiction into reality; and Star Trek has played a special role in my journey. Yes! The destiny of search is to become the Star Trek computer, a perfect assistant by my side whenever I need it. I hope you enjoy today’s magical doodle, and to all my fellow Trekkies, I say... live long and prosper. Cross-posted from the Google+ postof Amit Singhal, SVP, Engineering **STAR TREK used under license This Doodle's Reach


Yahoo

Dam collapse: 58 dead, hundreds still missingRescuers are digging through mud and debris in a desperate search for the nearly 300 people still missing in the wake of a dam collapse at a Brazilian mine. Cause of the tragedy still unknown »


Amazon.com: Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & more

Welcome to Amazon.com. If you prefer a simplified shopping experience, try the mobile web version of Amazon at www.amazon.com/access. The mobile web version is similar to the mobile app. Stay on Amazon.com for access to all the features of the main Amazon website.

source : international currency ,Welcome to reprint and share。

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