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Release time:2017-11-27
Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the easternpart of the Europeancontinent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomicconnotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region".[1]A related United Nationspaper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe as a culturalentity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman cultureinfluences.[3][4]Another definition was created during the Cold Warand used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Unionas Eastern Europe.[4]Some historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated,[1][5][6][7][8]but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes.[3][9]


Countries of Eastern Europe Explored

Eastern Europe is a region that encompasses many different cultures, ethnicities, languages, and histories. Grouping all of these countries under a single designation can sometimes be problematic; experts, scholars, and those living there label parts of the region according to varying sets of criteria, and heated debates have been known to erupt when one party has felt that a certain country has been miscategorized. However, it's important to note that the countries broadly classified as being a part of Eastern Europe have one thing in common: they were all behind the Iron Curtain before its fall, and this political boundary of the last century helps us define a region whose development, especially until the 1990s, has been very different from that of Western Europe. The most widely recognizes sub-regions of Eastern Europe include:East Central EuropeThe BalticsSoutheastern Europe/BalkansEastern EuropeThe countries within these regions are as follows:RussiaCzech RepublicPolandCroatiaS...MORElovakiaHungaryRomania and MoldovaSerbiaLithuania, Latvia and EstoniaSloveniaBulgariaUkraine and BelarusMontenegro, Bosnia and HerzegovinaAlbania, Kosovo, and MacedoniaEastern Europe's Regional Differences and SimilaritiesWe can acknowledge that some countries, like Poland and the Czech Republic, are more "central," and, if we want to be specific about their location, can refer to them as a part of East Central Europe. The Baltics, populated by people ethnically different from the rest of Eastern Europe, can also be grouped accordingly. The countries of the Balkans are classified differently depending upon what factors you're using, and Southeastern Europe is a good description for those countries that occupy the southern corner of Eastern Europe. And, as for everyone else - they're so far east there's no disputing the fact that they're a part of Eastern Europe, but East Eastern Europe seems redundant. It's understandable for some countries - whose national identities were so repressed under authoritarian regimes - to tire of being affiliated with a term that they feel is outdated and which unfairly associates them with other countries from whom they would rather distance themselves. But the truth is that Eastern Europe and all its sub-regions is a culturally, geographically, and historically fascinating place, and this site chooses to celebrate the region as a whole while acknowledging the differences of each sub-region and each nation within that sub-region.


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Where is Eastern Europe and what countries are in it | The Hidden Europe | Books

Where is Eastern Europe and what countries are in it | The Hidden Europe | Books


Asking, “Where is Eastern Europe?” seems as stupid as asking, “Who is buried in Grant’s tomb?” Obviously, Eastern Europe is in the eastern part of Europe. However, where to draw that line is extremely controversial. Indeed, it’s hard to find two people who agree on which countries are in Eastern Europe. Back in the good old Cold War days, defining Eastern Europe was easy: it was made up of all those losers who were on the wrong side of the Iron Curtain (mouse over the map on the right). Eastern Europe had those backward, communist countries which were frozen in the Stone Age. Because the world had such a low opinion of Eastern Europe, nowadays nobody wants to admit that they live there. For example, let’s just look at the Baltic countries. I’ve met Estonians who assert that they are in Northern Europe, Latvians who proclaim that they are in Central Europe, and Lithuanians who argue that they are in Western Europe! If you were to believe everyone you talked to, you would conclude that Eastern Europe just doesn’t exist! When pressed, Eastern Europeans admit that Eastern Europe exists, but they all believe that the region starts just east of whatever country they happen to live in. I like this definition. My father was French, so Eastern Europe, for me, starts in Germany. Sorry, Germans. If you’re European, it’s time to review Geography 101. Any territory can be divided in a number of ways. For instance, you can divide it east-west and/or north-south. If you like, you can create a central region. To have even more granularity, you can create a northeast region, a southeast region, and so on. However, sometimes people don’t want all those options. They just want a simple binary division (thereby eliminating the concept of a central region). For example, if you want to divide the US with a north-south split, you would probably use the old Civil War dividing lines. If you want a simple east-west split, you would use the Mississippi River, even though it’s an imperfect split. Chicago boys may dislike being called an Eastern American just as a Hungarian might dislike being called an Eastern European. They both would yell, “We’re Central, not Eastern!” Similarly, someone from Montana might say, “I’m not in the Western US, I’m in the Northern US!” They would all have a good point. However, if central and northern are not options (and they are not, when you divide a territory with a simple east-west split), then you must choose a side. You might not like east-west splits, but there’s nothing evil about dividing any region that way. So get over it. However, we still have the challenge of deciding where that east-west line should be. Let’s be scientific about it. Geologists agree that Eastern Europe ends at the Ural Mountains, which lie hundreds of kilometers east of Moscow. It’s 5,200 kilometers (3,250 miles) from Lisbon, Portugal to Perm, Russia (a city next to the Urals). The halfway point is Wrocław, a Polish city near the German border (see Google map below). If you extend a north-south line through Wrocław, it would cross the Czech Republic, Austria, and western Croatia. Only Slovenia would find itself on the west side of that dividing line (you can hear the Slovenians cheering now). In short, this 50/50 geographical split results in an east-west border that is quite close to the Cold War dividing line. View Larger Map Another way to solve this tedious question is to learn where experts say is Europe’s geographic center. Wherever that point is, we could project a north-south line across it, thereby clearly marking Europe’s east-west division. Unfortunately, geographers can’t agree on all the edges of Europe, so they can’t agree on its exact center. Geographers have placed Europe’s center as far west as Dresden (Germany), as far east as Rakhiv (Ukraine), and as far north as Estonia’s island of Saaremaa. War is God’s way of teaching Americans geography. — Ambrose Bierce Before we invest too much time finding the perfect 50/50 split, let’s remember that many east-west (or north-south) divisions are asymmetrical. For example, about two-thirds of America rests on one side of the Mississippi River. Russia’s east-west line is the Ural Mountains, even though that results in a 75/25 split. Cities often have artificial and arbitrary east-west divisions that are hardly symmetrical. They might be based on a railway line or a river. Therefore, even if you play with a world map to “prove” that Europe’s perfect 50/50 east-west split lies east of Romania, it doesn’t mean that’s where the division should be. There’s another good reason to use the old Cold War dividing line. History shapes who we are. Whether Eastern Europeans like it or not, the communist experience is still in their collective memory. Those who are under 30 years old might yell, “But I don’t remember those days! I grew up with Western values!” However, their parents and teachers drilled their local history and values into their children’s brains. It’s part of who they are. The legacy of slavery can still be felt in the southern regions of the US, even though slavery ended 150 years ago. Communism, in contrast, ended less than 25 years ago. Communism may have left Eastern Europe, but its long shadow is still there. Finally, there’s one more thing that Eastern European countries have in common: they’re still relatively hidden. Of course, businesses and tourists have poured into the region ever since the Wall came down in 1989. However, the world is still far more familiar with Western Europe than Eastern Europe. Most people can explain the difference between Italy and Ireland; however, they’ll give you a blank look if you ask them to compare Slovenia and Slovakia. In conclusion, for geological, historical, and even touristy reasons, I have defined Eastern Europe quite broadly. The Hidden Europeputs 25 countries in Eastern Europe. It includes western Russia, Germany’s eastern half, and the ex-Yugoslav countries. It also includes three countries that few consider part of traditional Eastern Europe: Finland, Greece, and Turkey. Finland is east of Poland (and north of the Baltic), so geographically it certainly is in Eastern Europe. Greece is also geographically in Eastern Europe (it’s south of the Balkans). However, we will only examine the part of Greece that is most tied to the rest of Eastern Europe: Greece’s northern portion. Like Russia, most of Turkey is in Asia, so we will just look at its western side. In sum, I spent three years in 25 countries nearly 25 years after the Berlin Wall came down. Americans may wonder why I’m taking so much time to define Eastern Europe. “What’s the big deal, anyway?” you may ask. “So you’re in Eastern Europe. So what? Who cares?” Trust me. It’s a really big deal in this region. It’s a highly charged and emotional topic that sparks endless and explosive debates. If you want to make Eastern Europeans twitch and squirm, just tell them that they are from Eastern Europe. The only people who don’t seem to care are the Moldovans. They’re just happy that anyone knows that Moldova exists. This article is an excerpt from the Introduction of The Hidden Europe: What Eastern Europeans Can Teach Us. The book is available at my shop! You might also enjoy this NYT articleabout "Where is Europe?"


What countries make up Eastern Europe?

A:Quick AnswerEastern Europe includes the countries of Russia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia. These countries are commonly grouped into the subregions of Eastern Europe, East Central Europe, the Baltics and the Balkans.


Eastern Europe Map

Eastern Europe MapThe map of Eastern Europe shows the countries that are located in the Eastern part of Europe. The Eastern European countries include Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Poland, Bulgaria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Hungary and Republic of Moldova. Map of Eastern Europe - Click on any Country for its Map and Information


Photo Gallery and Description of Poland Culture Page 1

The national flag of Poland consists of a stripe of white on the top and a stripe of red on the bottom. These colors have been in use in the Polish flag for centuries. Before the 20th century, Poland's flag featured its coat of arms, a white eagle on a red background. Some Polish flags still use the coat of arms; it will be found in a red crest centered in the white stripe of the current national flag. The colors of Poland's flag are often used to represent the country. You will see red and white used in cities' coat of arms (for example, Warsaw's coat of armsfeatures a red shield on a white background). Souvenirs from Poland are also sometimes created in these colors. Polish Flag Day was established in 2004 and is observed on May 2. Though Poland's flag may be more widely flown on this day, it can always be seen at important government buildings like the Presidential Palacein Warsaw.


Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe Also found in: Wikipedia.Eastern Europe The countries of eastern Europe, especially as defined by factors such as historic political ties with Russia, adherence to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, or use of Slavic languages and the Cyrillic alphabet.Translationsأوروبا الشرقيةИзточна ЕвропаEuropa de l'EstVýchodní EvropaØsteuropaOsteuropaΑνατολική ΕυρώπηEuropa OrientalIda-Euroopaاروپای شرقیItä-EurooppaEurope de l'Estמזרח אירופהIstočna EuropaKelet-EurópaEropa TimurAustur-EvrópaEuropa orientale東ヨーロッパ東欧동유럽Rytų EuropaOost-EuropaØst-EuropaEuropa WschodniaLeste EuropeuEuropa de EstВосточная ЕвропаVýchodná EurópaVzhodna EvropaИсточна ЕвропаÖsteuropaUlaya ya MasharikiยุโรปตะวันออกСхідна Європаمشرقی یورپĐông ÂuWant to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content.Link to this page:


Eastern Europe

Similarities in Eastern European business cultureBusiness cultural norms when conducting business such as greeting a business partner, scheduling a meeting or gift giving are all very similar in nature across the region. Likewise, business etiquette regarding taboos, time keeping, dress code, bribery and corruption also share many similarities. The education system is more or less the same across most Eastern European countries: for example, they all offer the possibility of changing school after the first 5 years of study to either a grammar or technical school. In the majority of these countries workforce is highly educated. All the countries also prefer face – to – face communication and address each other formally using their educational or office titles. Attitude to business meetings, how to set up a meeting and greeting people at meetings are very similar too. Restaurant etiquette is also similar whilst cuisine varies from country to country. Punctuality is very important throughout the region and regarded as a sign of reliability; a lateness of up to 15mins is generally acceptable but frowned upon. Student placement still does not receive enough support from the business community in most of these countries even though universities are working hard towards changing this fact. Social media usage is high amongst individuals across the region with many SMEs also trying to incorporate it into their marketing strategy, but the level of uptake is at a level that is not yet comparable to that of Western and Northern Europe. Facebook is the most popular social networking site across all Eastern European countries. Differences in Eastern European business cultureThe countries included in this region cover the area from North to South: Baltic countries – LithuaniaLatviaEstoniaCentral Europe – PolandCzech RepublicHungarySlovakiaBalkans countries – BulgariaRomaniaThis approach has highlighted some differences – for example, a more friendly attitude to foreign nationals in Balkan countriescan be observed. Poland is the biggest country in Eastern Europe with about 38 million inhabitants followed by Romania with a population of 21 million, while the other countries have much smaller populations: Czech Republic and Hungary about 10 million, Bulgaria 7 million, Slovak Republic 5 million, Lithuania 3 million with the smallest one being Estonia, which has a population of around 1 million people. Because of this wide geographical spread there are some other notable differences between these countries, for example Czechs are generally non-confrontational while a Slovak or a Pole will be more straight forward and outspoken with their opinion. It’s a taboo to shake hands at the doorway for a Pole but acceptable for other countries. Only Slovakia and Estonia use the Euro while the rest of the countries in this region are still using their local currency. Though the structure of business meetings is similar, negotiating styles vary even though the hierarchical system is strictly observed; Poles and Estonians are more formal and written-detail oriented while Slovaks and Czechs prefer a good presentation and a longer negotiation process. Another important difference is linguistics – this is due to a wide geographical spread. Though the majority of the Eastern European region, countries belong to the Slavic group of languages – Czech, Slovak, Polish and Bulgarian. There are also other language groups in this region – for example Latvian and Lithuanian belong to the Baltic group whilst the Romanian language has Latin origins and is very close to Italian and Spanish. Hungarian and Estonian languages belong to Finno-Ugric group. Bulgarians and Romanians are mainly Orthodox while others in the region are Catholics (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Lithuanians) or Lutherans (Estonians, Latvians) but in all of these countries you can find various types of Christians living together with Muslims, Jews and other religions. Explore the following pages, which contain more information on each of these Eastern European countries:


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