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Release time:2017-11-24
MARC Code List for Languages

Table of ContentsIntroduction(PDF)Changes in 2007 EditionStructure of the CodesRelationship to ISO 639-2Individual Language CodesLanguage Group CodesNames of Languages and DialectsSpecial Codes for Special SituationsArrangement of the ListUse of Language Names in CatalogingMARC 21 Fields in which Codes are UsedPublication BackgroundCode MaintenanceRelated MARC 21 DocumentsOther Related Documents


MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data: 041: Language Code (Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress)

First IndicatorSecond IndicatorTranslation indication # - No information provided 0 - Item not a translation/does not include atranslation 1 - Item is or includes a translation Source of code # - MARC language code 7 - Source specified in subfield $2


MARC Code List for Languages : MARC Standards (Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress)

MARC Code List for Languages2007 EditionNetwork Development and MARC Standards OfficeLibrary of CongressThe 2007 edition of the MARC Code List for Languages is now available from the Library of Congress. This new publication contains a list of languages and their associated three-character alphabetic codes that allow for the designation of the language or languages in MARC records. References from variant forms and specific language names assigned to group codes are included. This edition contains 484 discrete codes, of which 55 are used for groups of languages. The list includes all valid codes and code assignments as of September 2007 and supersedes the 2003 edition of the MARC Code List for Languages. There are 27 code additions and 12 changed code captions in this edition. MARC Code List for Languages (ISBN 978-0-8444-1163-7) is available for $20 (North America) and $ 22 (outside North America) from: Library of CongressCataloging Distribution ServiceCustomer Services SectionWashington, DC 20541-4912U.S.A.WEB: www.loc.gov/cds/TEL : +1-202-707-6100FAX : 1-202-707-1334EMAIL : [email protected]MARC 21 information, including future additions to the MARC Code List for Languages, may be found at: www.loc.gov/marc. An XML version of the 2007 edition of the MARC Code List for Languages is available for use in applications at: www.loc.gov/standards/codelists/languages.xml. MARC 21 HOME<< MARC Code List for Languages< < 2007 Edition Available The Library of Congress<< Librarians, Archivists<< Standards(04/05/2011)Legal| External Link Disclaimer


Additions to MARC Code List for Languages: MARC Standards (Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress)

  TECHNICAL NOTICE (Oct. 17, 2006)Additions to MARC Code List for LanguagesNetwork Development and MARC Standards OfficeLibrary of CongressThe following codes have been approved for use in the international languagecode standard, ISO 639-2 (Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages--Part2: alpha-3 code) and are also being added to the MARC Code List forLanguages.New codeLanguage namePreviously coded


041 Language Code

DefinitionThe codes for the languages associated with an item when the fixed-field element Langis insufficient to convey full information for multilingual items, items that are translations, or items where a medium of communication is a sign language. The language codes found in schemes listed in Language Code and Term Source Codes (http://www.loc.gov/standards/sourcelist/language.html) may be used in field 041. OCLC prefers the use of MARC codes as found in MARC Code List for Languages (http://www.loc.gov/marc/languages/). You may repeat 041 to include MARC codes if you use non-MARC codes. Note: Instructions and examples in this section will reflect the use of MARC codes. You may also use field 546to record language information in textual form. Use field 041 in conjunction with Lang. If Lang is coded zxx (No Linguistic Content), do not record a code in field 041 in subfield ǂa or subfield ǂd. If Lang contains a code other than zxx, record the same code from Lang in field 041 in subfield ǂa or subfield ǂd. Use field 041 when: The item contains more than one language one of which may be a sign languageThe item is or includes a translationThe language of the abstracts, accompanying material, or summaries differs from the language of the main itemThe language of a table of contents differs from the language of the main itemDo not use field 041 to record the MARC language code if there is only one language associated with the item already recorded in Lang. COMRecord codes for languages associated with the data and/or user interface (e.g., screen displays). Do not use for machine languages (e.g., COBOL) or character codes (e.g., ASCII). Record such information in field 538. REC, SCORecord codes for languages for the following linguistic content: The score has text underlying printed musicThe audio recording has sung or spoken textThe libretto has text presented separatelyThe language of accompanying text (e.g., critical commentary, program notes) differs from the language of the main itemAlso record the following if readily ascertainable: Original language of printed, sung, or spoken textOriginal language of text presented separately (e.g., librettos)Original language of accompanying textVISUse for motion pictures, filmstrips, slides, transparencies, and videorecordings when: The sound track has different language versionsThe accompanying sound (discs, tapes, etc.) has different language versionsThe overprinted titles (subtitles) or separate titles for silent films are in different languagesThe sound accompanying a work is in one language and the same text is printed on the work in the form of overprinted titles in another languageAccompanying printed scripts are in multiple languages (e.g., one is in Spanish, one is in French, one is in English, etc.)The medium of communication includes sign languageField 041 may also be used to record additional language-related information about written or original languages on motion pictures and videorecordings. For original or historical projectable graphic material, opaque graphic material, and three dimensional material, use when: The language associated with the material (i.e., captions or other text associated with the item or collection that are part of the preferred source of information) is multilingualThe language of the accompanying material differs from the language associated with the item or collection1st IndicatorTranslation indication. Whether the work is or includes a translation. Assign the 1st indicator position from the content of the item itself. Accompanying material is not considered when determining if an item is a translation. Note: When printed music contains a translation of a vocal text printed as text, the item is considered a translation, so use value 1.


Lang

DefinitionALLLang represents the language of the item. The item is the principal work, including legends, accompanying text, and sung or spoken text. It excludes prefaces, introductions, forewords, and appendices. Notes about languages are entered in field 546. A single language code may be insufficient to describe the language of an item. If the item is multilingual or a translation, use multiple language codes. Enter the first code in Lang. Enter the multiple codes (including the first code) in field 041(Language Code).Use the predominant language code for a multilingual item that has two to six languages. If predominance cannot be determined, use the code that is first alphabetically. If the multilingual item has more than six languages, use the code for the language of the first title in field 245. If the item is multilingual with no predominant language and the cataloging institution has chosen not to specify a language, use code mul.Additionally, use field 041if an item is multilingual or a translation or has accompanying material, summaries, or tables of contents in another language. See field 041for more information.If the language cannot be determined, use code und (undetermined). If the item is in a language without a code, report the language to OCLC.Langcan be used along with field 377and field 546.If you are inputting a record without examining the item, determine the language code from the title or from a language note.COMCode for the language of the data and/or the user interface (e.g., textual displays) not the programming language (BASIC, C+, etc.). REC, SCOIf a score or recording has no sung or spoken text, use zxx. Use und for vocalises, humming, and other texts that are wordless or consist of nonsense syllables. VISLang coding depends on the type of material. For moving image materials, the language content is defined as the sound track, the accompanying sound, or sign language. For moving image materials with no sound or sign language content or if with sound and without narration, use zxx (no linguistic content). Do not code Lang based solely on the container or packaging.For filmstrips and slides, code for the text on the film, the accompanying sound, or the accompanying printed script (for works with no sound or if with sound and without narration).For all other still images, including original or historical graphic material and opaque and non-opaque graphic material, and three-dimensional materials, the language content is that associated with the material, i.e., captions or other text associated with the item or collection that are part of the chief source of information.CodesSee MARC Code List for Languages (http://www.loc.gov/marc/languages/) for a list of codes. IndexingFor indexing and searching information, see Searching WorldCat Indexes, Language. This page last revised: October 13, 2017


MARC Code List for Languages: Contents

MARC Code List for Languages: Contents


Source: The information contained in this section of the Cataloger'sReference Shelf is based on MARC Code List for Languages, 2007 Edition,including approved changes through April 17, 2012, prepared by the NetworkDevelopment and MARC Standards Office; Cataloging Distribution Service,Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.  It also includes updates throughJuly 22, 2015, based on the MARC Standards web site (http://www.loc.gov/marc/languages/langhome.html).


MARC Code List for Languages

MARC Code List for Languages


IntroductionName SequenceA-B-- A-ch'ang to Byzantine GreekC-G-- Cabardan to GypsyH-K-- Habe to KyrgyzL-N-- La-oop to NzimaO-S-- O-wen-k`o to SyryenianT-Z-- Ta River Van Kieu to ZyrianCode Sequencealternative ASCII versionChanges in 2003 editionChanges since 2003 editionNext printed edition: To be announced INTRODUCTIONThis document contains a list of languages and their associated three-characteralphabetic codes. The purpose of this list is to allow the designation of thelanguage or languages in MARC records. The list contains 457 discrete codes,of which 55 are used for groups of languages.Go to top of documentCHANGES IN 2003 EDITIONThis list includes all valid codes and code assignments as of February 2003.There are 24 code additions and 5 changed code captions in this revision. Go to top of documentSTRUCTURE OF THE CODESThe language codes are three-character lowercase alphabetic strings usuallybased on the first three letters of the English form or, in some cases, vernacularof the corresponding language name. The codes are varied where necessary toresolve conflicts. In the case of modern and older forms of some languages,the initial letters of each part of the language name are used to form the code,e.g. gmhfor German, Middle High, and gohfor German, OldHigh. When the name of a language is changed in the list, the original codeis generally retained. Go to top of documentINDIVIDUAL LANGUAGE CODESThis list includes individual codes for most of the major languages of the modernand ancient world, e.g. Arabic, Chinese, English, Hindi, Latin, Tagalog, etc.These are the languages that are most frequently represented in the total bodyof the world's literature. Additional codes for individual languages are createdfrom time to time when it becomes apparent that a significant body of literaturein a particular language already exists, or when it is determined that the amountof material in a language is growing.Usually only one code is provided for a given language, even if that languagecan be written in more than one set of characters. In a few cases however, separatecodes are provided for the same spoken language written in different characters.Go to top of document  LANGUAGE GROUP CODESIn addition to codes for individual languages, the list also contains a numberof codes for language groups. While some individual languages are given theirown unique code, although linguistically they are part of a language group,many individual languages are assigned a group code, because it is not consideredpractical to establish a separate code for each.Group codes may be recognized by the fact that the name listed in associationwith the code does not represent an individual language, and includes eitherthe generic term "languages" or the expression "(Other)," as opposed to namesof individual languages which do not include these terms. For example: mynMayan languagesnicNiger-Kordofanian (Other) These language group codes are generally established at a very broad level,e.g. South American Indian (Other) sai. Although some South AmericanIndian languages have their own unique codes, such as Mapuche arnand Aymara aym, all other South American Indian languages which havenot been assigned a unique code, such as the Cumana language, are assignedthe group code sai. Some group codes have been established at an intermediate level when individuallanguages and dialects within that group did not warrant discrete codes, yetit was felt that assignment to one of the very broad group codes was not sufficientlyspecific. For example, the Athapascan language group, a subgroup of NorthAmerican Indian languages, is given the code ath, and that code ratherthan nai, the code for North American Indian (Other), is assignedto Athapascan languages not having their own codes. Ancient languages which are not given unique codes are assigned the codefor the major language group to which each belongs, rather than the code forthe modern language which evolved from the ancient language. Thus, the languageSwedish, Old is assigned the code gem for the language group Germanic(Other) instead of the code swe for the modern language Swedish. Dialects are normally treated like any individual language entered in thelist, and are generally assigned a group code. However, if a dialect of alanguage as well as the language itself is entered in the list, the dialectis usually assigned the same code as the code for the language. If the languageis assigned a group code, the dialect is assigned the same group code. Forexample, Bolinao, a dialect of Sambali, and Sambali language itself are bothassigned phi, the group code for Philippine (Other). If the languagehas a unique code, the dialect is also assigned that code rather than thecode for the group to which both belong. For example, Aja, a dialect of Ewe,is assigned ewe, the code for Ewe. In a few instances, however, boththe language and a dialect of that language have their own unique codes. Forexample, Akan has the code aka, and Twi, a dialect of Akan, has thecode twi. Go to top of document  NAMES OF LANGUAGES AND DIALECTSThe form of name of a language used in this code list normally corresponds tothe form of the name appearing in Library of Congress Subject Headings(LCSH), with the exception that names of individual languages in the list generallydo not include the terms "language" or "dialect" and consist of only the substantiveportion of the name. For example:English (name in code list)English language (name in LCSH)LCSH forms of names have not been used for the code list name if they makeuse of subdivisions; instead such headings are reformulated into phrase expressionsfor this list. This most often occurs in connection with headings for localdialects:Morvan French (name in code list)French Language--Dialects--France--Morvan (name in LCSH)In addition, names of early forms of modern languages often appear in thecode list in a form different from LCSH which frequently makes use of chronologicalsubdivisions: Swedish, Old (to 1550) (name in code list)Swedish language--To 1550 (name in LCSH) Go to top of document SPECIAL CODES FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONSIn addition to codes for individual languages and language groups, codes arealso provided for three special situations. Undetermined [und]This code is used if the language associated with an item cannot be determined.This code is also used for works having textual content consisting of arbitrarysyllables, humming or other human-produced sounds for which a language cannotbe specified. Multiple languages [mul]This code is used when two or more languages are associated with an item,and it is not practical to use codes for all of the languages. Blanks [###]Three blanks are used in place of a language code when the item has no sung,spoken, or written textual content (e.g. instrumental or electronic music;sound recordings consisting of nonverbal sounds; audiovisual materials withno narration, printed titles, or subtitles; machine-readable data files consistingof machine languages or character codes).  Go to top of document ARRANGEMENT OF THE LISTThe list is made up of two basic parts: Part I: Name Sequence, and Part II:Code Sequence. A description of these two parts follows.Part I: Name SequenceIn this part, the languages are listed alphabetically by the name. An entryfor an individual language gives the name followed by the code in brackets,both in boldface. Any variant names of the language are listed on successivelines, with the first variant preceded by the symbol UF (used for). For example:Aramaic [arc]UF Biblical AramaicChaldeanThe entry for an individual language which does not have a unique code, but isassigned a group code is similar, except that the assigned code with its languagegroup name is given on the lines following the name. For example: ChabacanoAssigned collective code [crp] (Creoles and Pidgins (Other))UF ChavacanoZamboangueñoThe entry for a language group is also similar to that for an individual language,with the addition of a list of the individual languages which have been assignedthat group code. This list follows the variant names, if any are given. Forexample: Creoles and Pidgins (Other) [crp]UF PidginsCollective code for: Chabacano Fanakalo Naga Pidgin San Basilio del Palenque Spanish Creole Unami jargonThe variant names from each of these entries also appear in their alphabeticposition in the list as references, but not in boldface. For example: BafangUSE Fe'fe'ChaldeanUSE AramaicThese references do not give the code; the entry under the name referred to mustbe consulted to determine the code.Part II: Code SequenceIn this part, the languages and their codes are listed alphabetically by the code.Only the name of the individual language or language group and the associatedcode are given in this part. Tracings or references for variant forms of the languagenames are not included. For example:arcAramaicbaiBamileke languagesLanguages which are assigned a group code are not included in the code sequencepart. Thus, the language Fe'fe' which is assigned the group code baidoes not appear in this part of the list. Discontinued codes are also listed in this part in their alphabetical sequence.They are identified by a hyphen preceding the code. For example: -ajmAljamíaGo to top of document USE OF LANGUAGE NAMES IN CATALOGINGThe names of individual languages which appear in boldface are the form normallyused in uniform titles and notes in bibliographic records. For example:Homer. Iliad. English. (form in uniform title)Text in Coptic and French; notes in French. (form in note)Library of Congress Rule Interpretations 1.7B2 and 25.5C may be consultedfor specific instructions and exceptions. The individual languages which appear in boldface also usually correspond tothe subject headings for those languages in LCSH. The relationship of languagenames in this list to LCSH is described more fully above in the section "Namesof Languages and Dialects." Go to top of document MARC 21 FIELDS IN WHICH CODES ARE USEDLanguage codes are used in the following MARC 21 fields:Bibliographic records008/35-37 Fixed-Length Data Elements / Language040$b Cataloging Source / Language of cataloging041 Language Code242$y Translation of Title by Cataloging Agency / Language code of translatedtitle775$e Other Edition Entry / Language codeAuthority records040$b Cataloging Source / Language of catalogingHoldings records008/22-24 Fixed-Length Data Elements / Language040$b Record Source / Language of catalogingClassification records040$b Cataloging Source / Language of cataloging084$e Classification Scheme and Edition / Language codeCommunity Information records008/12-14 Fixed-Length Data Elements / Language040$b Cataloging Source / Language of cataloging041 Language CodeThe appropriate format document should be consulted for specific instructionson the use of language codes in these fields and subfields. Go to top of document PUBLICATION BACKGROUNDThis list was originally compiled in collaboration with Library of CongressMARC Pilot Project participants, the National Library of Medicine, the NationalAgricultural Library, and the Defense Language Institute. In addition, the languagelist of the Center for Applied Linguistics, Library of Congress SubjectHeadings (LCSH), and language specialists were consulted. The list wasrevised by a committee of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO)and became an American National Standard in 1987: Codes for the Representationof Languages for Information Interchange (ANSI Z39.53). In 2000, the listwas further revised to include numerous changes necessary for compatibilitywith the ISO 639-2 (Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages Part2: Alpha-3 Code) standard. Go to top of document CODE MAINTENANCEThe Library of Congress is the maintenance agency for this list and for bothANSI Z39.53 and ISO 639-2. Questions and requests for information about thislist should be sent to the Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library ofCongress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4305 (e-mail: cpso@loc.gov).ANSI Z39.53 and ISO 639-2 include only the list of codes and associated languageor language group name (as in Part II of this document). Requests for new language codes are submitted to the ISO 639-2 maintenanceagency, Library of Congress, (iso639-2@loc.gov)and balloted by the ISO 639 Joint Advisory Committee. Once approved, they areadded to the ISO 639-2 and MARC lists and are included in ANSI Z39.53 when revised.Notices describing additions/deletions of code values will be issued for allchanges to the language codes made in the interim period between issuance ofrevised versions of this document. Please consult the MARC website (www.loc.gov/marc/)for these notices. Go to top of document RELATED MARC 21 DOCUMENTSMARC 21 Format for Authority DataMARC 21 Format for Bibliographic DataMARC 21 Format for Classification DataMARC 21 Format for Community InformationMARC 21 Format for Holdings DataMARC 21 Concise Formats Go to top of document OTHER RELATED DOCUMENTSCodes for the Representation of Languages for Information Interchange(ANSI Z39.53)Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages Part 2: Alpha-3 Codes(ISO 639-2)Go to top of document Go to: MARC Code List for Languages| MARC Home Page Libraryof Congress


MARC Code List for Languages

MARC Code List for Languages


Network Development and MARC Standards OfficeLibrary of CongressThe 2003 edition of the MARC Code List for Languages is now availablefrom the Library of Congress. This new publication contains a list of languagesand their associated three-character alphabetic codes that allow for the designationof the language or languages in MARC records. References from variant formsand specific language names assigned to group codes are included. This editioncontains 457 discrete codes, of which 55 are used for groups of languages.The list includes all valid codes and code assignments as of February 2003and supersedes the 2000 edition of the MARC Code List for Languages.There are 24 code additions and 5 changed code captions in this edition.MARC Code List for Languages (ISBN 0-8444-1070-5) is available for $20(North America) and $ 22 (outside North America) from:Library of CongressCataloging Distribution ServiceCustomer Services SectionWashington, DC 20541-4912www.loc.gov/cdsTEL: 1-202-707-6100FAX: 1-202-707-1334EMAIL: [email protected]MARC 21 information, including future additions to the MARC language code list,may be found at: www.loc.gov/marc/.May 5, 2003Go to: MARC Home Page| Library of Congress Home Page Library of Congress

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