Volcanoes and Global Climate ChangeAbout This ModuleTopics: volcanoes, volcanic gases, eruptions, climate change, greenhouse effect Grade Levels: 5-8 Scenario Eruption of Mt. Stromboli, ItalyVolcanoes are the most dramatic and rapid agents of geologic change. An erupting volcano can eject vast amounts of ash and gases into the atmosphere, and cover the ground with tons of lava flows and ash. Eruptions create new mountains, and tear down old ones as we watch. Large eruptions are dangerous, sometimes killing tens of thousands of people at one time. But the most extreme impact of eruptions is their affect on Earth’s climate. Our planet’s climate results from a complex and always changing mixture of processes and events. The basic source of energy is radiation from the Sun. The incoming radiation interacts with the Earth’s atmosphere and surface, so that changes to either can affect the climate. For example, a dark lava flow absorbs more of the solar energy than a desert soil, so a large enough lava flow could warm a local region. But a much larger influence on climate comes from volcanic gases erupted into the atmosphere that spread out and encircle the planet. The most abundant gas typically erupted is water vapor, which has been measured to be as high as 97% of gases erupted from some volcanoes. The water has very little impact on climate because it usually rains out of the atmosphere fairly quickly. In fact, it is very common to find volcanic ash deposited that preserve rainfall splash marks. 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, PhilippinesThe greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) is the second most common gas (varying from 1% to 50% in different types of eruptions). Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and commonly ponds in low-lying areas; it can poison and kill animals that breathe it. The CO2 does not significant influence climate because volcanic CO2 is only about 1% of what is released by burning of fossil fuels. The gas that does have a noticeable climate impact is sulfur dioxide (SO2). Unlike greenhouse gases, SO2 cools the atmosphere. Magma contains a small amount of SO2, typically less than 10% by volume. Large eruptions thrust the SO2 into the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) where it is transported around the planet. Contact with abundant water changes the SO2 gas into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) droplets called aerosols. Even though they are microscopic, there are billions of such aerosols following a big eruption, so that they actually affect the climate. Each aerosol absorbs some of the radiation from the Sun, and thus heats itself and the surrounding stratosphere. But each ray of Sunlight that hits an aerosol does not strike the Earth, robbing the surface of that small amount of heat. During the 1900s there were three large eruptions that caused the entire planet to cool down by as much as 1°C. Volcanic coolings persist for only 2 to 3 years because the aerosols ultimately fall out of the stratosphere and enter the lower atmosphere where rain and wind quickly disperse them. Although scientists understand the basic mechanism of cooling due to eruptions there are many details still to be investigated. Here are some questions for you to consider: Not all volcanic eruptions seem to effect climate. What are the characteristics, other than bigness, of those that do?How can geologists predict which volcanoes are likely to impact the climate when they erupt?What would be the climate effect if a series of large eruptions occurred over 10 years? For further information: Volcanic Gases and Climate Change Overview Volcanic Gases and Climate Change Overview (U.S. Geological Survey) http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hazards/gas/climate.php Volcanic Gases and Their Effects (U.S. Geological Survey)
Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids
Volcanoes (Volcanoes are not associatedwith weather, but instead are natural disasters.)What is a volcano?Avolcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below thesurface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rockshoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lavafragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows,mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have beenknown to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis,flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls.Click Hereto learn moreabout volcanoes from USGS.How are volcanoes formed?Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth'supper mantle works its way to the surface. At the surface, it erupts to formlava flows and ash deposits. Over time as the volcano continues to erupt, itwill get bigger and bigger.Whatare the different stages of volcanoes? Scientists have categorized volcanoes into three maincategories: active, dormant, and extinct. An active volcano is one which hasrecently erupted and there is a possibility that it may erupt soon. A dormantvolcano is one which has not erupted in a long time but there is a possibilityit can erupt in the future. An extinct volcano is one which has eruptedthousands of years ago and theres no possibility of eruption.Why do volcanoeserupt?The Earth's crust ismade up of huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle.These plates sometimes move. The friction causes earthquakes and volcaniceruptions near the edges of the plates. The theory that explains this processis called plate tectonics.Whatare plate tectonics?The theory ofplate tectonics is a interesting story of continents drifting from place toplace breaking apart, colliding, and grinding against each other. The platetectonic theory is supported by a wide range of evidence that considers theearth's crust and upper mantle to be composed of several large, thin,relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The plates are allmoving in different directions and at different speeds. Sometimes the platescrash together, pull apart or sideswipe each other. When this happens, itcommonly results in earthquakes.Continental Drift: To see thisanimation again, just refresh this page! This animation shows you what ourplanet looked like millions of years ago and what it looks like now! (GraphicCredit: Geology Department at University of California, Berkeley)Click Hereto learn more about plate tectonics andthe drifting of our continents.How many volcanoes are there?There are more than 1500 active volcanoes on the Earth. Wecurrently know of 80 or more which are under the oceans. Active volcanoes inthe U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Oregon andWashington.What are the different types of volcanoes?Volcanoes are grouped into four types: cinder cones,composite volcanoes, shield volcanoes and lava volcanoes.Cinder ConesCinder cones are circular or ovalcones made up of small fragments of lava from a single vent that have beenblown into the air, cooled and fallen around the vent.CompositeVolcanoesComposite volcanoes aresteep-sided volcanoes composed of many layers of volcanic rocks, usually madefrom high-viscosity lava, ash and rock debris. Mt. Rainier and Mount St. Helensare examples of this type of volcano.Shield VolcanoesShield volcanoes are volcanoesshaped like a bowl or shield in the middle with long gentle slopes made bybasaltic lava flows. Basalt lava flows from these volcanoes are called floodbasalts. The volcanoes that formed the basalt of the Columbia Plateau wereshield volcanoes.Lava VolcanoesLava domes are formed whenerupting lava is too thick to flow and makes a steep-sided mound as the lavapiles up near the volcanic vent. The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 wascaused in part by a lava dome shifting to allow explosive gas and steam toescape from inside the mountain. What is the difference between lava andmagma?Magma is liquid rock inside avolcano. Lava is liquid rock (magma) that flows out of a volcano. Fresh lavaglows red hot to white hot as it flows.Why does lava take a long time to cooldown?Lava cools slowly because lava is a poor conductor of heat.Lava flows slow down and thicken as they harden.What is a pyroclastic flow?A pyroclastic flow is afluidized mixture of solid to semi-solid fragments and hot, expanding gasesthat flows down the sides of a volcano. These awesome features areheavier-than-air emulsions that move much like a snow avalanche, except thatthey are fiercely hot, contain toxic gases, and move at phenomenal,hurricane-force speeds. They are the most deadly of all volcanic phenomena.What is lahar?Alahar is a type of mudflow or debris flow composed of pyroclastic material,rocky debris, and water. The material flows down from a volcano, typicallyalong a river valley. It is very dangerous because it's consistency and the wayit acts is very much like cement. It is liquid when it's moving, but when itstops, it solidifies. This can cause just as much devastation as lava itself.What is pumice?Pumice is alight, porous volcanic rock that forms during explosive eruptions. It resemblesa sponge because it consists of a network of gas bubbles frozen amidst fragilevolcanic glass and minerals. All types of magma (basalt, andesite, dacite, andrhyolite) will form pumice. What is the largest active volcano? The world'slargest, active volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii, where famous coffee is grown inthe rich volcanic soils. Mauna Loa is 13,677 feet above sea level. From itsbase below sea level to its summit, Mauna Loa is taller than MountEverest. What isthe Ring of Fire?The Pacific Ring ofFire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling thebasin of the Pacific Ocean. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home toover 50% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. Ninety percent of theworld's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along theRing of Fire.When did Mount St. Helens erupt?On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens erupted. It's located insouthwestern Washington State in the Cascade Range. The blast was heard as faraway as Montana, Idaho, Canada and California. Fifty-seven people died and theeruption caused $1.2 billion in damage.Click Herefor more info on Mount St.Helens. Whatare some other notable volcano eruptions?Krakatoa was a dormant volcano in Indonesia, whichawakened and produced one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in 1883. So massivewas the eruption that the sound of it was heard as far away as Australia.Its widely reported as the loudest sound heard in recorded history. TheKrakatoa eruption created a huge amount of ash cloud which covered the Earthand reduced global temperatures for 5 years! A total of 40,000 people died inthat explosion and an entire chain of the volcanic island was destroyed. Formore info: Click Here!Mount Peleewas a dormant volcano situated in the Caribbean island of Martinique. In 1902,it erupted in a massive horizontal explosion sending huge clouds of ashreleased towards the nearby town of Saint-Pierre. The side of the volcanoexploded and lava flowed straight into the town, killing 30,000 people in amatter of minutes. It is regarded as one of the biggest and most devastatingvolcanic eruptions of the 20th century, a benchmark for future eruptions.Mount Fujiyama, also popularly known as Mount Fuji,is an active volcano which last erupted in 1708. It is incidentally the tallestmountain in Japan. If you are visiting Tokyo, the capital of Japan, look in thewest on a clear day and you will be able to see Mount Fuji. It is an iconicvolcano. Mount Fuji is 3,776 meters high and it is snow clad throughout theyear, with five lakes surrounding it. Currently in a state of dormancy, therehas not been any eruption reported for more than 300 years. The last knowneruption lasted for about 3 weeks during which it covered the surroundingvillages with ash and cinders. Mount Fuji is now a popular tourist locationwith a large number of climbers actively scaling the mountain top.What is atsunami? A tsunami is a large oceanwave usually caused by an underwater earthquake or a volcanic explosion.Tsunamis are NOT tidal waves. Tidal waves are caused by the forces of the moon,sun, and planets upon the tides, as well as the wind as it moves over thewater. With typical waves, water flows in circles, but with a tsunami, waterflows straight. This is why tsunamis cause so much damage! Click Hereto see ananimation of an earthquake and the resulting tsunami. It's great for kids,because they get to see how it actually happens! Click Hereto get the latesttsunami warning information from the NWS. Know the LingoMAGMA -Magma is the liquid rock inside a volcano.LAVA - Lava is the liquid rock (magma) that flowsout of a volcano. Lava glows red hot to white hot as it flows.ACTIVE VOLCANO - An active volcano isone that erupts regularly. DORMANT VOLCANO - A dormant volcanois one that has not erupted for many years, although there is still someactivity deep inside. EXTINCT VOLCANO - An extinct volcano is avolcano that is no longer active. GEYSERS - Geysers are springsthat throw boiling water high in the air. They are caused by volcanic heatwarming trapped ground water.ASH - Ash are very small fragmentsof lava or rock blasted into the air by volcanicexplosions.PUMICE - It is a light-colored volcanic rockcontaining lots of bubbles from trapped gases. ClickHereto see if there has been any recent volcanic activityacross the U.S. VolcanoSafety TipsPLAN FOR A VOLCANO: First ofall, have a disaster plan and know whether or not you are at risk for danger.Be prepared for mudslides, flash floods, earthquakes, ash falling, acid rainand tsunamis. Prepare a disaster supplies kit for your home and car. Include afirst aid kit, canned food and a can opener, bottled water, battery-operatedradio, flashlight, protective clothing, dust mask, goggles and sturdy shoes.Don't forget, know all of your evacuation routes. DURING AVOLCANO: Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities. Avoid areasdownwind and river valleys downstream of the volcano. If your caught indoors,close all windows and doors, put machinery inside a barn, and bring animalsinside. If youre trapped outdoors, seek shelter indoors. If yourecaught in falling rocks, roll into a ball and protect your head. If yourecaught near a stream, be aware of mudflows and move to higher ground. Protectyourself when ash falls by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Usegoggles to protect your eyes. Wear a dust mask and keep car engines off.AFTER A VOLCANO: Cover you mouth and nose. Volcanicash can irritate your respiratory system. Wear goggles and protect your eyes.Keep your skin covered. Clear roofs of ash, because the ash is very heavy andcan cause the building to collapse. Volcano ActivitiesLesson Plan:Here are great lesson plans onlearning more about volcanoes. These are great lesson plans for elementaryschool students.Volcano Experiment:Here is an experiment on how to make a soda bottle volcano withMentos.Volcano Experiment:Here is another experiment on how to make a baking soda volcano.Science Fair Project Ideas:Here is acomplete list of science fair project ideas. Discover the science behind theweather that impacts us every day.
16 Cool Facts About Glaciers
The world today would look very different were it not for glaciers, the icy bulldozers that—over many thousands of years—carved out landforms such as fjords and America's Great Lakes. As it turns out, those impressive claims to fame are just the tip of the iceberg. Here are a few more fascinating facts about the massive bodies of ice and snow. 1. There's a size requirement.Proper glaciers must be a minimum of .1 square kilometers—that's almost 25 acres, or nearly 19 football fields! 2. The Largest Glacier on Earth is 60 Miles Wide and Around 270 Miles Long.That would be Antarctica’s Lambert glacier, named after former Australian director of national mapping Bruce P. Lambert, who helped chart out the area during the late 1950s. 3. They Behave Like Really, Really, REALLY Slow-Moving Rivers.
Science for Kids
Science Kids is the home of science & technology on the Internet for children around the world. Learn more about the amazing world of science by enjoying our fun science experiments, cool facts, online games, free activities, ideas, lesson plans, photos, quizzes, videos & science fair projects. If you're looking for a specific topic then head straight to our topic section. Choose from 30 science topics covering everything from plants to space. Find science games, experiments, facts, projects, videos, quizzes, lessons and images related to the topic of your choice.
50 Amazing Volcano Facts
Credit: NASABiggest recordedThe biggest volcanic eruption ever recorded by humans was the explosion of Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, in 1815. It ranked a 7 (or "super-colossal") on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the second-highest rating in the index.
Shiveluch Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 24/1120Z to 20000 ft (6100 m) / VolcanoDiscovery
Volcano Calendar 2019Volcano Calendar 2019: We're proud to present our 2019 volcano calendar: 13 different and attractive images of volcanoes, volcanic landscapes and phenomena taken during volcano tours over the past few years. Our New BookVolcano Discoveries: "One of the most eye-catching guides to the world’s volcanoes ever published.Volcano TravelVolcanoAdventures: Our professional team of volcanologists and photographers offers unique travel opportunities: volcano expeditions, photo tours, and relaxed walking & study tours.Volcano Adventure GuideThe Volcano Adventure Guide: Excellent information and background for anyone wishing to visit active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. The book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world.Guaranteed tours:15-17 Jun 2019: Treasures of the Saronic Gulf- Saronic Gulf (Greece) 15-30 Jun 2019: From Krakatau to Bali- Java (Indonesia)8-23 Jul 2019: From Krakatau to Bali- Java (Indonesia) 12-30 Aug 2019: Kamchatka - Land of Colors- Kamchatka (Russia) 13-29 Aug 2019: Volcanoes of Java- Java (Indonesia) 14-17 Aug 2019: Krakatau Volcano Special- Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) 1-19 Sep 2019: Kamchatka - Land of Colors- Kamchatka (Russia) 3-18 Sep 2019: From Krakatau to Bali- Java (Indonesia): spaces available / : guaranteed / : few spaces left / : booked outRandom picturesShiveluch volcano satellite image by (c) GoogleSend Volcano ReportShiveluch volcanoShiveluch (Sheveluch) volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes, and the one that has had the most violent eruptions.Stratovolcano 3283 m (10,771 ft) Kamchatka, 56.65°N / 161.36°E Current status: erupting (4 out of 5) Shiveluch webcams / live data| Reports Shiveluch volcano videos Shiveluch volcano books| Tours Shiveluch volcano eruptions: 1739(?), 1800(?), 1854 (Plinian eruption), 1879-83, 1897-98, 1905, 1928-29, 1930, 1944-50, 1964 (sub-Plinian, large dome collapse and debris flow), 1980-81, 1984, 1985, 1986-88, 1988, 1989 1990-94, 1997, 1998, 1999, 1999-ongoing Typical eruption style: Highly explosive. Construction of lava domes and large pyroclastic flows caused by dome collapse. One of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. Last earthquakes nearbyShiveluch volcano toursKamchatka - Land of Colors(volcano expedition to Kamchatka)Shiveluch Volcano Special(8-days expedition to see the ongoing eruption of Shiveluch volcano 16-24 Mar 2019) Latest satellite images Shiveluch volcano news and updatesShiveluch Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 24/1120Z to 20000 ft (6100 m)Thursday Jan 24, 2019 12:15 PM | BY: VN Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 and is moving at 15 kts in SW direction. The full report is as follows: FVFE01 at 12:00 UTC, 24/01/19 from RJTD VA ADVISORY DTG: 20190124/1200Z VAAC: TOKYO VOLCANO: SHEVELUCH 300270 PSN: N5639 E16122 AREA: RUSSIA SUMMIT ELEV: 3283M ADVISORY NR: 2019/90 INFO SOURCE: HIMAWARI-8 AVIATION COLOUR CODE: NIL ERUPTION DETAILS: VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 24/1120Z OBS VA CLD: SFC/FL200 N5638 E16123 - N5627 E16050 - N5634 E16048 - N5642 E16122 MOV SW 15KT FCST VA CLD +6 HR: 24/1720Z SFC/FL200 N5639 E16122 - N5537 E16026 - N5520 E15847 - N5619 E15915 FCST VA CLD +12 HR: 24/2320Z SFC/FL210 N5639 E16122 - N5434 E16007 - N5430 E15742 - N5539 E15726 FCST VA CLD +18 HR: 25/0520Z SFC/FL200 N5639 E16122 - N5332 E16010 - N5341 E15720 - N5515 E15621 - N5631 E16023 RMK: SOME PART OF VA OBSCURED BY MET CLOUD. NXT ADVISORY: 20190124/1800Z= All news about: Shiveluch volcanoInformation about: Shiveluch volcanoPrevious newsShiveluch Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: POSS VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 23/2320Z to 15000 ft (4600 m) Thursday, Jan 24, 2019Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 25 kts in SW direction. ... [more]Shiveluch Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 23/1120Z to 15000 ft (4600 m) Wednesday, Jan 23, 2019Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 40 kts in SW direction. ... [more]Shiveluch Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 23/0220Z to 15000 ft (4600 m)Wednesday, Jan 23, 2019Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 40 kts in SW direction. ... [more]Shiveluch Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 22/1720Z to 14000 ft (4300 m)Tuesday, Jan 22, 2019Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 14000 ft (4300 m) altitude or flight level 140 and is moving at 35 kts in SW direction. ... [more]Shiveluch Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA EMISSIONS CONTINUING OBS VA DTG: 22/0520Z to 14000 ft (4300 m) Tuesday, Jan 22, 2019Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 14000 ft (4300 m) altitude or flight level 140 and is moving at 45 kts in W direction. ... [more]More on VolcanoDiscovery:EthiopiaEthiopia and the Danakil: Ethiopia is a very diverse and beautiful country. Thanks to our numerous expeditions to Erta Ale and Dalloland beyond, we have an extensive collection of images showing the volcano's lava lake, the desert, the colorful hot springs of Dallol, the vast salt lakes, camel caravans and more.Photo of the Month: June 2019Smooth white rock surfaces (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer) View candidatesor submit photosChina's volcanoesActive volcanoes in China: Did you know that there are at least 15 active volcanoes in China? The last eruption was from the Kunlun volcano in 1951.MayonMayon volcano photos: Mayon on Luzon Island, towering above Legazpi city is famous for being one of the most perfectly symmetrical stratovolcanoes in the world. It is also one of the most active and most dangerous volcanoes (not only) in the Philippines. Why is there advertising on this site?Copyrights: VolcanoDiscoveryand other sources as noted. Use of material: Text and images on this webpage are copyrighted. Further reproduction and use without authorization is not consented. 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Mount St Helens Facts
Mount St Helens is located in Washington State, in the northwestern part of the United States. It is almost 100 miles from Seattle, and 50 miles from Portland.The volcano is 4,400 feet high at its highest point, and the base is about 6 miles across. Snow on the upper slopes of the volcano is often 15 feet deep.The deadliest volcanic eruption in the US occurred at Mt St Helens on May 18, 1980. 57 people were killed, 250 homes destroyed, and almost 200 miles of highway destroyed.Some of the first creatures to return to the volcano after the 1980 eruption were beetles and spiders. Scientists helped wild salmon to return by transporting them to streams in large tanks.An eruption several times more powerful than the 1980 eruption took place about 3,600 years ago. It caused Native American Indians in the area to abandon their hunting grounds.Most of Mount St Helens is less than 3,000 years old. This makes the volcano younger than the Great Pyramid in Egypt and Stonehengein England. The volcano erupted without stopping from September, 2004 to January, 2008. During this time, the Crater Glacier was split into two and the volcano settled about a half inch.In August, 1982, Mount St Helens was declared to be a National Volcanic Monument. The site covers 110,000 acres and an estimated 1.5 million people visited between 1982 and 1989.Like all volcanoes, Mount St Helens is constantly growing and changing shape because of the accumulation of erupted material. Since late 2004, a second lava dome has increased in volume by several square metres every second.Although hiking up the mountain is popular, another popular way to see what is happening on the volcano is with the official VolcanoCam. The website attracts an estimated 1.8 million viewers every day. Click hereto check it out.What next? Discover more volcano factsor visit the Primary Facts Mountain resourcespage.
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