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5 cool facts about hawaii

Release time:2019-06-03
Fun Facts on Hawaii

Fun Facts on Hawaii


Fun Facts on HawaiiFun Facts on Hawaii for KidsDiscover fast, interesting fun facts on Hawaii for kids with some amazing, cool and quick information. Ideal for children, homework, schools, teachers and kids of all ages! Enjoy our fast, fun facts for kids on Hawaii in a useful fact file format with facts sheets on every American State. Fast fun facts for kids with a funny video on every page to make the learning process easy, funny and great fun! Fast fun facts for kids with free pictures and photos - ideal for fast homework help. Find out answers to questions like: What is the Capital of Hawaii? How big is Volcano Kilauea? What is the Hawaiian Climate like? What does the state flag look like? What is the history of Hawaii? Watch our entertaining fun facts video and enjoy learning about the State of Hawaii the easy way!


🍍 14 fun facts about Hawaiian Pineapples (origin, history, pizza Hawaii, +)

🍍 14 fun facts about Hawaiian Pineapples (origin, history, pizza Hawaii, +)


Weather guideBefore you BookPineapples in Hawaii: 🍍history, 🍍facts and 🍍triviaHome» 40+ Big Island Facts» Pineapple triviaAsk anyone what they think when you say “Pineapple”, and they will almost certainly say “Hawaii”! Pineapples have indeed for a long time been a symbol of Hawaii but they are not native to the Hawaiian islands. Pineapples can be traced back to their origin in South America,  and are linked together with Hawaii because of the large pineapple industry that was build on Hawaii in the early 1900s. For a while, Hawaiì supplied over 80% of the world’s output of canned pineapple! The scientific name for the pineapple is “Ananas comosus“. In Hawaiian, a pineapple is called “hala kahiki”  because of their resemblance to the local fruit “Hana”.In our following definitive guide to pineapples in Hawaii you will: Find 14 cool pineapple facts,Learn about the history of the pineapple and how it came to Hawaii, andRead our take on whether the pizza Hawaii comes from Hawaii#Pineapples originate from #Brazil and came to #Hawaii because they prevent scurvy! #Trivia #Facttwitter shareclick to tweet14 cool Pineapple factsNot that you need any extra reason to like pineapples even more, but just in case: 14 interesting things that you may not have known about our favorite fruit: A pineapple is neither a pine nor an apple, but a fruit consisting of many berries that have grown together.This also means that Pineapples are not a single fruit, but a group of berries that have fused together. The technical term for this is a “multiple fruit” or a “collective fruit”.  You can see a 1 minute time lapse of a pineapple growing from many berries into one pineapple in the video directly below this list.The scientific name of a pineapple is Ananas comosus. This word comes from the Tupi words “nanas” (which means pine) and “comosus” (which means tufted). Tupi is the language used by the Tupi people, who are indigenous people of Brazil.Pineapples were historically very useful on long boat trips. Eating pineapple prevented scurvy, and pineapple juice mixed with sand is a great cleaning agent for boats.Pineapples can “eat you back”!  Pineapples contain an enzyme called “bromelain”.  This enzyme breaks down proteins in your mouth. So when you eat a pineapple, it is eating you back. Once the bromelain enters your stomach the enzymes are broken down, so you don’t need to worry about being eaten inside-out. Actually, pineapples have many medicinal qualities! [source]. Fun additional fact: workers on pineapple fields often don’t have fingerprints, which could be caused by this enzyme!Pollination of pineapples is required for seed formation, but the presence of seeds has a negative effect on the quality of the fruit. Possible pollinators for Pineapples are honey bees, pineapple bees, and Hummingbirds. In Hawaii, the import of hummingbirds is prohibited for this reason.It can take more than two years for a pineapple plant to produce a single pineapple fruit.Pineapple plants can grow from seeds of through vegetative reproduction (cloning). Cloning is by far the most popular method to grow new pineapples. To clone a pineapple you can use four different parts of the plant:  the crowns, slips, suckers, and shoots. The crown is the very top of the pineapple fruit. Slips are the leafy branches that are attached directly below the fruit. The suckers and shoots both originate from near the bottom of the stem.Have a look hereif you want to know how you can grow a pineapple at home.In Hawaiian, a pineapple is called “hala kahiki”. This is because the Hawaiians thought the pineapple resembled the “Hala” fruit. “Kahiki” means foreign, hence pineapples became “foreign Hana’s in Hawaii.Do you want to grow pineapples yourself? Then keep in mind that altitude matters! In Hawai’i, the best pineapples in terms of sugar content and sugar-acid balance grow at an elevation of ≈300 m.Pineapples can be tricked into flowering using smoke! This was first discovered on the Azores Islands using smoke. Later research showed the component in smoke responsible for the flowering to be ethylene. Now, forced flowering of pineapples is standard practice on Hawaii because it allows the fruits to be produced throughout the year.Pineapple production on Hawaii has severely decreased in the past few decades. Harvest volume now is only a few % of the peak rate it once was :(The last pineapple cannery on Hawaii closed in 2006 and now only fresh pineapples are exported. This is possible because of recent advancements in pineapple cultivation that have produced sweeter pineapples that are easier to transport (the so-called ‘MD-2’ pineapple cultivar). pineapple growing time lapse Watch this video on YouTubeHistory of the Pineapple in HawaiiPineapples come originally from South America, most probably from the region between South Brazil and Paraguay. From here, pineapples quickly spread around the continent up to Mexico and the West Indies, where Columbus found them when visiting Guadeloupe in 1493 [1]. Columbus then brought the pineapple back to Europe, from which it later made its trip to Hawaii. Pineapples proved to be an exceptionally good fruit to bring on long sailing voyages because they help to prevent, just like oranges, the often lethal disease scurvy [2]. As a side note: the mix of pineapple and sand also is a great cleaning agent for the large wooden ships used to cross the oceans. When exactly the first pineapples arrived in Hawaii is not certain. It is probable that they arrived together with the earliest European visitors to the Hawaiian Islands. The first documented claim of these early visits was by the Spaniards in the 16th century (source [3]or [4]). For the astute reader, that is more than 2 centuries before the arrival of captain James Cook! Since pineapples were such a popular fruit to take on long transatlantic voyages, any ship arriving in Hawaii may have brought some of these fruits along with them. The resemblance of the Hala fruit to pineapples is the reason why pineapples are called “Hala Kahiki” in Hawaiian. Source: Hala fruitby Frikitikiand is licensed under CC BY 2.0 After their first arrival it took them a while to become the great success they are now. Two technologies were essential for the pineapples success in Hawaii. The first one is the development of ocean steamers which made the transport of perishable fruits viable. The second one was the development of canning. Canning made it easy to harvest the pineapples ripe and to preserve their (great!) taste for customers all over the world. The first steps into the commercialization of pineapples were taken in the 1880s, but things really picked up after James Drummond Dole (do you recognize that name?) entered the pineapple world in 1903. By the early 1960s, Hawai’ì supplied over 80% of the world´s output of canned pineapple. This golden period did not last long though. Growing pineapples became cheaper in other countries and just 20 years later, in 1983, the last big Hawaiian cannery folded. Today, 75% of the world’s pineapples come from Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Does Pizza Hawaii come from Hawaii? “Does the pizza Hawaii come from Hawaii?” This question can spark a fierce debate among Hawaiian people. They will almost certainly deny any connection, but is this the truth? The Pizza Hawaii is a pizza with cheese, tomatoes, ham, and pineapple. It is the most popular pizza in Australia (about 15% of all pizza’s sold there [5]) but has very little to do with the Hawaiian islands. Or does it? We actually think that the pizza Hawaii can trace its roots *back* to Hawaii! The precursor of the Hawaiian Pizza is said to be the “Toast Hawaii”, which is an open-faced sandwich made with a slice of toast covered by a slice of ham and cheese below a slice of pineapple with a cherry in the middle which is then grilled. This sandwich is attributed to the German TV-cook Clemens Wildenrod who published it in 1955 [6]. “Hawaii” in the name for this toast obviously comes from the use of pineapple, which was then already associated with Hawaii. However, the connection between the pizza Hawaii and the Islands of Hawaii might be closer! The #Pizza #Hawaii could have Hawaiian roots. Blame Clemens Wildenrod!twitter shareclick to tweetAn uninspiring piece of toast Hawaii. Image credit: Wikipedia (Rainer Zenz) There do exist recipes of grilled spam-sandwiches including pineapple and cheese that date back to the 1930s. One example is the recipe from the Hormel cookbook from 1939: Put spam slices on buttered toast, cover with pineapple and grated cheese and put under the grill until the cheese melts. Doesn’t that sound familiar? Spamwas a main ingredient in the US army diet and as such came to Hawaii. Spam still is very popular in Hawaii, and recipes including the spam and pineapple likely traveled over the world in the wake of the US army canteens. The question is then if Clemens Wildenrod was ever exposed to this spam recipe. We think that it is very probable that is the case.  Clemens was living close to Wiesbaden after the 2nd world war, and Wiesbaden was the city where one of the largest concentration of US troops was stationed. Of course, we cannot be sure but the next time that someone mentions a pizza Hawaii this might be a nice story to recount – especially if that other person is from Hawaii! Sources:[1] Bartholomew, D, Paull, R, and Rohrbach, K. 2003. The pineapple botany, production, and uses. CAB International, New York, New York, USA. [ebook][2] Wikipedia article on scurvy.[3] Hawai’i archives: Spaniards on Hawai’i./spaniard47nnw.txt[4] “Fruit of the Islands”. Pittsburg Magazine 39 (3): 92. 2008[5] PQM goes to Australia[6] Entdeckt: Spamwich – das Vorbild für Toast Hawaii?Primary SidebarFind us on InstagramWe share our favorite pictures on Instagram. Guaranteed 100% Original Content from the Big Island of Hawai'i, go to our instagram pageHawaii TriviaHawaii Factsheet (all)Endemic Species on HawaiiGreen Sand BeachHāpuʻu (Hawaiian tree fern)Hawaii’s antipodesKahili GingerLake Waiau on MaunaKeaThe longest Hawaiian namePāhoehoe and ʻAʻā LavaPele’s HairPineapplesLocal FoodLocal BeersChocolateKona CoffeeLocal SpecialitiesMacadamia NutsHighlightsBig Island factsheetNational parksHawaii Volcanoes National ParkPu’uhonua o Honaunau / Place of RefugeMuseumsLocal food3 Big Island RecordsHawaii PicturesAnnual eventsMyths and LegendsMyths and LegendsOhia Lehua, and the jealousy of PelePele and Kamapua’aPopular activities🏖 Beaches🌋 Lava and VolcanoesManta Ray Night Dive🚗 Road Trips!🔭 Stargazing @ Mauna Kea🐋 Whale WatchingPlanning EssentialsPlanning your tripFlying to HawaiiRenting a car🌴 New: curated tour sectionFooterOur favoritesHawaii’s 3 hottest beaches5 stunning short hikesVolcanoes National Park3 great snorkeling spotsHand picked highlightsAbout Love Big IslandWe are a Big Island (Island of Hawaii) travel guide written by people with a passion for Hawaii. 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Interesting facts and fun trivia: Big Island fact sheet

Interesting facts and fun trivia: Big Island fact sheet


Planning your tripWeather guideBefore you Book40+ Big Island Facts and Trivia. Learn fun stuff!Home» 40+ Big Island FactsFact sheet of the Big Island of Hawaii. Learn about Hawaii and surprise your friends with the fun facts and trivia we have collected on the Big Island. You can test your Hawai’i trivia knowledge (before or after reading this page) and find out if you are “Da BIG Kahuna” by taking our 5-minute Hawaii Quiz.Aloha!Aloha shirtsAloha stateAntipodesAir Strikes on HawaiiBeachesCaptain CookEarthquakes on HawaiiEndangered birdsEndemic species on HawaiiGreen sand beachHāpuʻu (Hawaiian tree fern)Hawaii island flowerHawaii nicknamesHawaii state birdHawaiian alphabetHumuhumunukunukuāpuaʻaIronman triathlonKahili gingerKailuaKilaueaLake WaiauLava flow speed recordLoihi – the youngest island of HawaiiLoco mocolauwiliwilinukunuku’oi’oiLongest riverMauka and MakaiMahukona VolcanoMeteors in Hawaiian CultureNot so big Big IslandPahoehoe and A’aPidgin – the unofficial language of HawaiiPele’s hairPineapplesRecent lava damageSandwich IslandsSpamTelescopes on HawaiiThe 1946 TsunamiThe widest state!24 Tsunamis since 1812Two ladies kitchenUkuleleWaipi’o cliffsWikiWorld records for Hawaii40+ facts and trivia about the Hawaiian islands Some of the nuggets of trivia listed above are so interesting that we decided they deserve their own comprehensive article. You can see that list below: The LauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoiThe Lauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoi (longnose or foreceps butterflyfish) is the fish with the longest Hawaiian name.The fish are monogamous and easy to find.Continue reading about: The LauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoiEndemic and Native Species in Hawaii90% of all native species in Hawaii are endemic if you only count the native species that live on land. 50% of *all* native species on Hawaii are endemic.Continue reading about: Endemic and Native Species in HawaiiLake Waiau on MaunaKeaLake Waiau is a lake just below the summit of MaunaKea on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi at an elevation of 13020 ft. Mythological and Scientific background.Continue reading about: Lake Waiau on MaunaKeaPāhoehoe and ʻAʻā LavaPāhoehoe and A'a are two different kinds of lava rock. You can find both on the Big Island of Hawaii. Differences, similarities and the Hawaiian translation.Continue reading about: Pāhoehoe and ʻAʻā LavaPineapples in Hawaii: 🍍history, 🍍facts and 🍍triviaFun trivia and facts of pineapples. History of the pineapple, how 🍍 came to Hawaii, why 🍍 are called "Hala kahiki" and why "Pizza Hawaii" might be Hawaiian..Continue reading about: Pineapples in Hawaii: 🍍history, 🍍facts and 🍍triviaHāpuʻu or Hawaiian tree fern [trivia]Facts, trivia and pictures for the Hāpuʻu (Hawaiian tree fern). Medicinal use and how to eat Hāpuʻu, as well as a Hawaiian proverb that features this plant.Continue reading about: Hāpuʻu or Hawaiian tree fern [trivia]Green Sand Beach [trivia]Trivia for Green Sand Beach (Papakolea, Mahana beach) on the Big Island of Hawaii. Origin of the different names, history, and why is the green sand, green?.Continue reading about: Green Sand Beach [trivia]Kahili GingerKahili ginger is a beautiful but invasive plant originating from eastern India. It is not edible and can be found in forests on all Hawaiian islands.Continue reading about: Kahili GingerThe antipodes of HawaiiDig a hole through the earth starting in Hawaii, and you would come out on the other side of the planet in Botswana in Africa. These are Hawaii's antipodes.Continue reading about: The antipodes of HawaiiPele’s Hair (volcanic glass)Pele's hair are thin strands of volcanic glass drawn out from molten lava. You can find this hair of Pele all around the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.Continue reading about: Pele’s Hair (volcanic glass)Big Island Fact SheetAloha!Aloha means many things, including: love, affection, compassion, mercy, sympathy, pity, kindness, sentiment, grace, charity, greeting, salutation, regards, sweetheart, lover, loved one, to love, to be fond of, and many more things. It is commonly used as a greeting or a way to say goodbye. Are you here for Spam?  You must be from Hawaii, we love that stuff! (click the spam-url for more spam trivia). Aloha ShirtsThe aloha shirt, a shirt with exotic designs, became fashionable in the world in the 1980s. These Hawaiian shirts were worn by superstars such as Richard Gere, Bob Barker, Timothy Hutton, Jack Nicholson, and Paul Newman. Aloha StateHawaii is the 50th state of the USA. By a legislative act, Hawaii became officially known as the “Aloha State” in 1959. AntipodesAn antipode is a person that lives on exactly the other side of the planet. The antipodes for all Hawaiians except those living in the north of Kauai are people living in the country of Botswana in Africa (see the pictures to convince yourself). The antipodes for people living in the northern part of Kauai are Namibians (from Namibia). Air Strikes on HawaiiThe air force bombed a lava flow that threatened Hilo in 1935 but failed to stop it. Read more Hawaiian facts and trivia about the volcanoes in A Short History of the Big Island in 5 Volcanoes. Always close to a beach!While on the Big Island you will never be farther than 28.5 miles away from a beach. Better yet, 30% of the surface of the Big Island is within 5 miles of a beach! (source). Captain CookDid You know that the famous British explorer Captain James Cook died on the Big Island during a struggle with the native population? This happened in Kealakekua Bay (also nicknamed Captain Cook) in 1779 A.D. Nowadays, Kealakekua Bayis a favorite destination for snorkeling and diving on the Big Island that should not be missed. Earthquakes on HawaiiHawaii is not the state with most earthquakes, but it is the state with the highest earthquake density! The Big Island is by far the most seismically active island of all Hawaiian islands. Read more in “Hawaii, the Earthquake state?” Endangered BirdsMore birds have become extinct in Hawaii than in any other part of the world. A total of 26 species died out and 27 more are endangered by changes in their natural habitats, forest destruction, rats, mongooses, and man. Endemic species on HawaiiEndemic to Hawai’i means that you cannot find it at any other place in the world. 90% of all native species on Hawaii are endemic if you only count the native species that live on land. 50% of *all native* species on Hawaii are endemic, and 40% of *all* species are endemic. Pretty cool! Read more of such cool facts (e.g. 99.5% of tree snails are endemic!) in our comprehensive guide to native and endemic species on Hawaii. Green Sand BeachGreen sand beach is one of the two green sand beaches in the United States, and one of the 4 green sand beaches worldwide! It gets its color (and name) from olivine crystals that wash out of a 49.000-year-old cinder cone next to the beach. Other names for this beach are Papakolea and Mahana beach. Find out why on our dedicated “Green sand beach trivia page” [including pictures!]. Hāpuʻu or Hawaiian tree fernThe Hāpuʻu or Hawaiian tree fern (Cibotium menziesii) is what gives many places on Hawaii that “Jurassic park” feel. It also has medicinal use and features in a Hawaiian proverb about famine and death. Curious? Find out more at our dedicated “Hāpuʻu trivia” page. Hawaii Island FlowerIsland flowers and colors are used to represent each island.The Island Flower of the Big Island is called the “Pua Lehua”. It is the red blossom of the ōhiʻa lehua tree and is intimately connected to an interesting Hawaiian legend. Hawaii NicknamesThe Island of Hawaii has many nicknames, so be careful not to get confused. If you hear people about the following islands, they all talk about the same island. “The island of Hawai’i”“The Big Island”“The Orchid Island”“Hawai’i’s Island of Adventure”Hawaii State BirdThe Hawaiian Goose or Nēnē (Branta sandvicensis) is a species of goose endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. It is the official state bird of Hawaiʻi and is exclusively found in the wild on the islands of Maui, Kauaʻi and Hawaiʻi. The Hawaiian name Nēnē comes from its soft call.Hawaiian Alphabet The current official Hawaiian alphabet consists of 13 letters: 5 normal vowels; A, E, I, O, U: 5 Vowels with Macrons; Ā, Ē, Ī, Ō, Ū: and 8 consonants; H, K, L, M, N, P, W, ʻokina. The ʻokina is an apostrophe which represent the glottal stop. Despite this limited amount of letters, Hawaiian know some proper tongue-twisters, such as the state fish called “humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa” or the lauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoi. HumuhumunukunukuāpuaʻaHumuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa (reef trigger fish), the state fish of the Big Islandof Hawaii The state fish of Hawaii is the humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa. Translated from Hawaiian it means “triggerfish with a pig-like short snout”. It’s name is pronounced as “who-moo-who-moo-noo-koo-noo-koo-ah-pooah-ah”. The humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa has not, as often claimed, the longest fish name in Hawaiian.  That distinction belongs to lauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoi(“long-snouted fish shaped like a wiliwili leaf”). Ironman TriathlonThe Ironman Triathlon was moved from Oahu to the Big Island in 1981. It runs now between Kona in the East and Hawi in the North. Kahili GingerKahili ginger is very pretty and an invasive species originating from eastern India. ‘Kahili’ is a Hawaiian word for a feather standard or a long pole decorated at one end with a cluster of feather plumes, which is a symbol of royalty and is/was used as a ceremonial emblem in Hawaii. [more information and pictures of Kahili Ginger] This plant is probably one of the first to catch your eye if you are visiting Volcano Villageor the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, but can be found in forests on all Hawaiian islands. KailuaKailua means “two seas” or “two currents”. It is a contraction of the words kai (meaning “sea” or “sea water”) and ʻelua (meaning “two”). There are two cities on the Hawaiian islands called ‘Kailua’. The biggest Kailua is on the windward side of O’ahu, while the smaller lies on the leeward side of the Big Island. Because in the Hawaiian language, ‘leeward’ means ‘kona’, Kailua on the Big Island is also referred to as ‘Kailua-Kona’. KilaueaThe Kilauea Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the world – and it has been active for a long time! The Hawaiian name “Kīlauea” means “spewing” or “much spreading,” probably in reference to the lava flows that it already erupted in ancient Hawaiian times. Lake WaiauJust below the summit of MaunaKea, inside a cinder cone, is Lake Waiau. This is the only glacial lake in the mid-Pacific, and, at 13,020 feet above sea level, it is also one of the higher lakes in the world. In recent years its volume is fluctuating a lot. By November 2013 it held less than 1%(!) compared to its pre-2010 volume [source 1], while as per mid-2015 it refilled almost back to historic levels [source 2]. You can find more in-depth information on, and pictures of, lake Waiau, at our dedicated Lake Waiau Trivia page. Lava flow speed recordLike many other things, lava flows on Hawai’i have their own pace. The fastest recorded flow recorded here was the 1950 Ho’okena ‘a’a flow of Mauna Loa which advanced down a 5º slope through thick forest at approximately 10 km (6 miles)/hour  [source]. LauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoiThe fish with the honor of having the longest Hawaiian name is the lauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoi. Freely translated this name means “long-snouted fish shaped like a wiliwili leaf”. This fish indeed has a HUGE snout, and is also monogamous! You can find out more about this interesting fish and tongue twister extraordinaire in our extended lauwiliwilinukunukuʻoiʻoi triviaarticle. Forcipiger flavissimus Yellow Longnose Butterflyfish. Source: Wikimedia commonsby user Nhobgood. Published under a CC BY-SA 3.0 license LoihiThe Big Island is the youngest Island of Hawaii, but that will change in the future! As the island moves away from the hot spot responsible for the Hawaiian Islands, a new Island is already forming 15 miles southeast of the coast of Big Island: Loihi. The summit of Loihi has already risen by two miles, and it still has one mile to go until it breaks the ocean surface. In another 30 or 40 thousand years, Loihi will be born as the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands! Loco MocoThe Loco Moco is a dish native to Hawaii. It consists of white rice topped with a hamburger patty, a fried egg, and brown gravy, but there are many variations. These include amongst others: chili, bacon, ham, Spam, kalua pork, Portuguese sausage, teriyaki beef, teriyaki chicken, mahi-mahi, shrimp, oysters, and other meats, Big Island Grindscan tell you more. Longest river on HawaiiThe longest river in the state of Hawai’i is the Kaukonahua Stream on Oahu, which is 33 miles long. The second longest river is the Wailuku River on the Big Island. This river starts high up Maunakea and takes 32 miles to reach the ocean. The Wailuku river does have the largest water discharge of all rivers in the state, with an average of 180 million gallons / day. This is part of what makes the rainbow falls (on the Wailuku river)such a beautiful waterfall. (source) Mauka and MakaiIn Hawaii, there are two uniquely local words that describe a direction: Mauka (mow-kah) means on the mountain side in the context of directions.Makai (mah-kigh) means on the ocean side in the context of directions.These words are used very frequently and without a further description in Hawaii. So, now you’ll know when you go what these words mean and you’ll be navigating like a local. Meteors in Hawaiian CultureThere are several words for a meteor or comet in the Hawaiian Language: Koll, Akualele, Hokulele and Hoku Welowelo. Leiepio means “To fly, as a meteor through the sky”. You can learn more about Meteors in Hawaiian culturehere. Mahukona VolcanoThe Mahukona volcano is the oldest and the northernmost volcano of the Big Island of Hawaii. Its existence was predicted in 1890 but it took scientists up to 1987 (almost 100 years!) to confirm this. You can read more about the Mahukona volcano (and the 5 other volcanoes that are, have been or will be part of the big island) on our Big Island Blog. How “Big” is the Big Island? The Big Island might be “big” compared to the other Hawaiian islands, but, in reality, it is quite small. From the southern tip to the northern tip it measures  a mere 93 miles, while the distance between the extreme points on the east side and the west side is 76 miles (source). The surface of the Big Island is 4,029 square miles (10,433 km2). Pahoehoe and A’aThere are two different kinds of hardened lava you can encounter on the Big Island: Pahoehoe (pronounced ‘pah hoy hoy’) and a’a (pronounced ‘ah ah’). The surface of a’a lava is very sharp and rough, while pahoehoe lava surfaces are more smooth. Pictures, a video, and more information in our in-depth Pahoehoe and A’a article. Pele’s HairPele’s hair is not real hair from the Hawaiian goddess of fire Pele. Instead, it is the internationally recognized name for little strands of lava glass that are created during ongoing eruptions. Read more about Pele’s hairs (including picture). PidginPidgin (or Hawaiʻi Creole) originated as a form of communication used between English speaking residents and non-English speaking immigrants in Hawaii. Almost all locals weave pidgin in their everyday (English) conversations, so try keeping your ears open. If you want to look up a couple of phrases, here is a good place to start. Pineapples in HawaiiAsk anyone what they think when you say “Pineapple”, and they will almost certainly say “Hawaii”! Pineapples have for long been a symbol of Hawaii, but they do not originate from there. Pineapples are native to South America and made their way to Hawai’i via a detour to Europe sometime between the 16th and 18th century.  Read more about the history of pineapples on Hawaii, about how Hawaiian a “pizza Hawaii” is, and at least 5 other pieces of interesting pineapple facts in our special pineapple fact sheet. Recent Lava DamageBetween 1983 and 1991, lava flows repeatedly invaded communities on Kilauea’s coastal south flank burying eight miles of highway and destroying 181 houses and a visitor center in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Sandwich IslandsWhen Captain Cook first landed on the Hawaiian islands in 1778 he named them the Sandwich Islands. Not because he was so happy he could finally get some proper food, but after his Patron, the 4th Earl of Sandwich. SpamSpam (the food, not the unsolicited emails) is very popular in Hawaii. More spam is consumed on Hawaii than in any other state of the USA. One popular local snack is “Spam Musubi”. Because it is so popular here, you can find “exotic” spam versions in supermarkets on Hawaii, such as Honey Spam, Spam with Bacon, and Hot and Spicy Spam. Some people even go as far as calling spam “Hawaiian steak”. Not us though. We prefer the local, pastured-raised steaks from cows on the Big Island! Telescopes on HawaiiMauna Kea on the Big Island houses some of the world’s biggest telescopes and has more scientific observatories in one place than anywhere else in the world. Read how you can see visit the telescopes on the summit yourself in our DIY stargazing guide for Mauna Kea. Tsunamis in Hawai’iThe state of Hawai’i is vulnerable to tsunamis. Since 1812, 24 tsunamis with a run-up of more than 2 meters (6.6 feet) have been recorded. Of these, the 1946 tsunami (see below) was by far the most devastating. In total, these tsunamis caused 291 casualties, the last ones as recent as in 1975 (source). Today there are elaborate early warning systems in place to protect against tsunamis. The 1946 Hilo TsunamiIn 1946, a 54-foot (16.4 meters) tsunami swept over the east side of the Big Island sparking a national tragedy. This tsunami caused 159 deaths and a material damage of 26 million USD (347 million USD in 2017 when corrected for inflation). If you are in Hilo, you can still see the consequences because the houses closest to the bay have never been rebuild. The Widest StateIf measured from east to west, the state of Hawaii is almost 1500 miles long. This makes Hawaii the widest state of the United States!! Two Ladies KitchenThe large Japanese population of Hawaii has a very positive effect on the local food. Have you ever heard of Mochi? Mochi (little Japanese rice cakes) are now a very popular snack in Hawaii. For one of the best tastes of the Island, go to Two Ladies Kitchenin Hilo and ask for the Strawberry Mochi! UkuleleThe ukulele was made famous by Hawaiian music (think Israel Kamakawiwoʻole), but is not a native Hawaiian instrument – it is Portuguese! The ukulele came to Hawaii in the 19th century as a Hawaiian interpretation of the “cavaquinho” or “braguinha” and the “rajao”, a small guitar-like instrument taken to Hawaii by Portuguese immigrants. Waipi’o CliffsThe amazing sea-cliffs found on the North of the Big Island (for example at Waipi’o Valleyor Pololu) are most likely sculpted by a gigantic landslide some 200.000 years ago when part of the island slid into the sea. These valleys also contain two of our five favorite short hikes on Hawaii! Wiki“Wiki” (as in Wikipedia) is a Hawaiian word and means “Quick”. World Records for HawaiiDid you know that Mauna Kea on the Big Island is the tallest sea mountain in the world and, if measured from the ocean bottom, is 4000 feet taller than Mt. Everest? More record-breaking trivia on the Big Island. Primary SidebarFind us on InstagramWe share our favorite pictures on Instagram. Guaranteed 100% Original Content from the Big Island of Hawai'i, go to our instagram pageHawaii TriviaHawaii Factsheet (all)Endemic Species on HawaiiGreen Sand BeachHāpuʻu (Hawaiian tree fern)Hawaii’s antipodesKahili GingerLake Waiau on MaunaKeaThe longest Hawaiian namePāhoehoe and ʻAʻā LavaPele’s HairPineapplesLocal FoodLocal BeersChocolateKona CoffeeLocal SpecialitiesMacadamia NutsHighlightsBig Island factsheetNational parksHawaii Volcanoes National ParkPu’uhonua o Honaunau / Place of RefugeMuseumsLocal food3 Big Island RecordsHawaii PicturesAnnual eventsMyths and LegendsMyths and LegendsOhia Lehua, and the jealousy of PelePele and Kamapua’aPopular activities🏖 Beaches🌋 Lava and VolcanoesManta Ray Night Dive🚗 Road Trips!🔭 Stargazing @ Mauna Kea🐋 Whale WatchingPlanning EssentialsPlanning your tripFlying to HawaiiRenting a car🌴 New: curated tour sectionFooterOur favoritesHawaii’s 3 hottest beaches5 stunning short hikesVolcanoes National Park3 great snorkeling spotsHand picked highlightsAbout Love Big IslandWe are a Big Island (Island of Hawaii) travel guide written by people with a passion for Hawaii. 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State Symbols, 50 State Capitals, Flags, Maps, Geography, Facts, Songs, History, Famous People from NETSTATE.COM

State Symbols, 50 State Capitals, Flags, Maps, Geography, Facts, Songs, History, Famous People from NETSTATE.COM


Featured State: AlabamaDid you know?- Dothan, Alabama is called the Peanut Capital of the World. Fifty percent of all the peanuts produced in the U.S. are grown within 100 miles of Dothan. Click herefor more information about the Alabama Economy.- Despite the disapproval of Georgia peach growers, the Peach was designated the Alabama State Tree Fruitin April 2006.- Helen Adams Keller was born June 27, 1880 in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Click herefor other notable Alabamians.This week in Alabama historyOn December 14, 1819, Alabama, became the 22nd state to enter the union.Coming up in AlabamaJoin the Huntsville, AL community in a unique festival of trees. The Tinsel Trail located in Big Spring Park displays over 200 uniquely decorated Christmas trees sponsored by a local corporation, group, or family. Click herefor details. Visit the states:


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MACADAMIA

ProteaceaeCommon Names:Macadamia, Australian nut, Queensland Nut.Species: "Smooth-shelled Macadamia" (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche),"Rough-shelled Macadamia" (M. tetraphylla L. Johnson). Hybrid forms existbetween the two species.Distant Affinity: Helicia nut (Athertonia diversifolia), Chilean Hazel(Gevuina avellana), Australian Rosenut (Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia).Origin: Macadamia integrifolia is native to southeastern Queensland where it growsin the rain forests and close to streams. M. tetraphylla is native tosoutheastern Queensland and northeastern New South Wales, growing in rainforests, in moist places and along stream banks. At the point where the twospecies meet, there are types that appear to be natural hybrids. Themacadamia was introduced into Hawaii about 1881 where it was used as anornamental and for reforestation. The Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Stationnamed and introduced several promising selections in 1948, which led to themodern macadamia industry in Hawaii. In California two seedling macadamiaswere planted in the early 1880's and are still standing on the Berkeleycampus of the University of California. The importation of improved and namedvarieties into California from Hawaii began about 1950. Macadamias are alsocommercially important in Australia, South Africa and Central America.Adaptation: Macadamias are ideally suited to a mild, frost-free climate withabundant rainfall distributed throughout the year, roughly the same climatesuitable for growing coffee. Both species, however, grow well in the coastalareas of California, although varieties often respond differently to a givenlocation. Mature macadamia trees are fairly frost hardy, toleratingtemperatures as low as 24° F, but the flower clusters are usually killed at28° F. Young trees can be killed by light frosts. M. tetraphylla appears tobe slightly more cold-tolerant. Consistently high summer temperatures willreduce yields, although again M. tetraphylla shows more tolerance. When grownin a large tub, macadamias make suitable container plants.DESCRIPTIONGrowth Habit: Macadamias are large, spreading evergreen trees reaching 30 to40 ft. high and almost as wide. More upright types are known and beingselected because of their suitability for closer planting. The bark is roughbut unfurrowed, brown and dark red when cut. The macadamia has proteoidroots, dense clusters of short lateral rootlets in well defined rows aroundthe parent root axis. The prime function of such roots appears to be inincreasing the surface area of the root system for maximum absorption. Thevigor of seedlings appears to be related to the degree of proteoid rootdevelopment.Foliage: The two species are fairly easily distinguished by their foliage.The leaves of M. integrifolia are 8 to 11 inches in length and occur usuallyin whorls of 3. The adult leaves are entire with few spines. New growth ispale green. The spiny, often sessile leaves of M. tetraphylla usually appearin whorls of 4 and may grow to 20 inches long. The new growth is bronzy pink.Growth in mature trees of both species occurs in two flushes, in spring andmidsummer. In young trees four flushes may occur.Flowers: Flowers are borne on long narrow racemes arising from the axils ofleaves or the scars of fallen leaves. They may be borne on the new growth ifit is mature, but more often on the two, or three season's growth precedingthe most recently matured flushes. The flowers, about 1/2 inch long, areperfect but incomplete in that they have no petals, but four petaloid sepals.M. integrifolia has creamy white flowers borne in clusters 6 to 12 incheslong, while the flowers of M. tetraphylla are cream-colored or pink and bornein clusters up to 15 inches long. Macadamias can self-pollinate, althoughvarieties vary from being totally self-compatible to being almostself-sterile. Wind pollination may play some role, but bees are apparentlythe major agent in pollination. Cross-pollination by hand has been shown toincrease nut set and quality.Fruit: Macadamia nuts have a very hard seed coat enclosed in a green huskthat splits open as the nut matures. As the common name indicates, this seedcoat is smooth in the case of M. integrifolia. It holds a creamy white kernelcontaining up to 80% oil and 4% sugar. When roasted it develops a uniformcolor and texture. Although M. tetraphylla is often referred to as therough-shelled macadamia, the seed coat of some cultivars are smooth, whileothers are rough and pebbled. The quality of the kernels of M. tetraphyllaare also more variable. The oil content ranges from 65% to 75% and sugarcontent ranges from 6% to 8%. These factors result in variable color andtexture when the the nuts are roasted under the same conditions as those ofM. integrifolia. M. tetraphylla is well suited to the home garden, however,and has been planted for commercial production in California.CULTURELocation: Macadamias do best in full sun, although in hot climates partialshade can be beneficial. Windy locations should also be avoided. The brittlebranches can be damaged by wind, especially when laden with a heavy crop ofnuts.Soil: Macadamias will perform on a wide range of soil types from open sandsand lava rock soils to heavy clay soils, as long as the soil is well drained.They do best, however, in deep, rich soils with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5.Macadamias will not tolerate soil or water with high salt concentrations. Inareas with low annual rainfall, leach the soil regularly.Irrigation: Macadamias can withstand periods of drought, but the harvestswill be small and of low quality. Irrigation seems to be more importantduring certain critical periods in the crop cycle, particularly from the timeof nut set, through nut filling and through the vegetative growth period inmidsummer. The trees should receive at least as much water as is normallyprovided an avocado tree. The actual amount depends on the soil. Young treesalso have higher water requirements than mature trees. In general it isimportant to water macadamias regularly and deeply during dry periods.Fertilization: Since macadamias grow slowly, they do not require largequantities of nitrogen fertilizer. Six months after planting out the treesshould receive light applications of a balanced fertilizer such as a citrusmix or fish emulsion which contains no more than 1% nitrogen. Applicationsshould be made at least twice a year. A mature tree should receiveapproximately 5 pounds of citrus mix per application and young treesproportionally less. Too much nitrogen may result in chlorosis.Micronutrient deficiencies are common in some areas, but these can becorrected with chelated sprays.Pruning: The object of pruning a macadamia is to form a tree with a singlemain stem and a framework of horizontal branches, starting at 3 ft. above theground and from there at intervals of about 1-1/2 ft. In M. integrifoliathere are 3 buds in a vertical row in each of the three leaf axils of a node.When the stem is is topped, all three upper buds will grow straight up. Onlyone of them must be allowed to remain and to continue the main stem, theother two being clipped off to a stub of about 3/8 inch. Now the buds belowthose two stubs will grow out in a more or less horizontal direction. Onlythese branches will flower and fruit. This process is repeated until a goodframework has been established. Macadamias will take heavy pruning but thismay drastically reduces yields.Frost Protection: Frost protection is more critical for young trees than moremature ones. While they are still on the small side, the plants can be giventhe standard methods of protection, such as plastic sheeting and such drapedover a frame around the tree. As the trees get larger, they are moredifficult to cover, but they also become more tolerant of mild frostsPropagation: Macadamias are easily grown from seed, but the seedlings maytake 8 to 12 years to bear a crop and the quality of the nuts isunpredictable. Grafting is the most common method of producing nursery treesand is best done in spring or autumn. The wood of macadamia is hard, however,requiring the propagator to have experience to be successful. The scionwoodis girdled some 6 to 8 weeks beforehand, the preferred wood being healthymature material of the previous flush. The recommended graft is the simplewhip, using material 3/8 to 5/8 inch thick. The side graft is alsosuccessful, and tip, wedge or cleft grafting is used under greenhouseconditions for working small seedlings up to 1 ft. high. Budding is alsopossible as well as propagation from softwood cutting and air-layering.Cutting-grown trees take some time to develop an adequate root system andwill need staking when young. Some grafted varieties of macadamias beginbearing within 2 years, while others not for 7 to 8 years.Pests and Diseases: In Australia there are a host of pests and diseases thatafflict macadamias, but in the U.S. there are few problems in home gardens.Occasionally, thrips, mites and scale may be troublesome, and anthracnose caninfect leaves and nuts in humid climates. Canker can also result from woundsto the tree. Macadamias are fairly resistant to Phytophthora cinnamoni, andare sometimes used to replant avocado orchards infected with the fungus. Theroots of the macadamia do not appear to be very attractive to gophers, butdeer will browse on the new foliage.Harvest: Mature macadamia nuts will fall to the ground from late fall tospring. It is best to harvest fallen nuts, since shaking the trees todislodge the nuts may also bring down immature nuts. A long pole can be usedto carefully knock down mature nuts that are out of reach. A reasonably goodtree will produce 30-50 pounds of nuts at 10 years age and gradually increasefor many years.Harvested nuts should be dehusked and spread in a dry place protected fromthe sun and allowed to dry for 2 or 3 weeks. To finish drying put the nuts ina shallow pan and place in the oven at the lowest temperature setting (100°to 115° F) for about 12 hours. Stir occasionally and watch that the nuts donot cook. Excessive heating will damage nut quality. Store the nuts in acool, dry area. A heavy plastic bag will prevent nuts from reabsorbingmoisture. When the nuts are dry, the shells can be removed with anutcracker. A cottage industry of sorts has developed around designingnutcrackers that can best cope with the hard shells.To home-roast macadamia nuts, place shelled nuts (whole kernels or halvesonly) in a shallow pan no more than two deep. Roast 40 to 50 minutes,stirring occasionally. Watch carefully and remove from the oven as soon asthey start to turn tan. After roasting, the nuts store nicely, salted orunsalted, in airtight jars at 40° to 65° F. They can also be frozen.Macadamia nuts are excellent raw or roasted. In addition to being a qualitysnack, they can be used in almost any recipe that calls for nuts, includingstuffings, fruit salads, cakes, etc.Commercial Potential: Macadamia nuts are considered by many to be the primeedible nut. Even at the high prices demanded, twice that of cashews, themarket remains unfilled. This demand for macadamia nuts has spurred a flurryof plantings in areas all over the world where macadamias will thrive. Thereis a limited but significant commercial production of the nuts in SouthernCalifornia.CULTIVARSBeaumont (Dr. Beaumont)Hybrid. Originated in Australia. Discovered by Dr.J. H. Beaumont. Introduced in 1965 by the California Macadamia Society.Round, medium to large nut, 65 to 80 per pound. Shell medium-thick, kernel40% of nut, with a high percentage of grade A kernels. Some nuts may spliton the tree and be ruined. Texture and flavor very good. Tree upright,ornamental. New leaves reddish, flowers bright pink, borne on long racemes.Nuts drop over a long period. Recommended for home gardens.BurdickM. tetraphylla. Originated in Encinitas, Calif.Large nut, averaging 40 per pound. Shell thin, about 1/16 inch thick, well-filled. Kernelaverages about 34% of total nut weight, quality good. Matures in October.Tree bears annually. Not widely planted these days. Has been superseded bybetter cultivars. Also used as a rootstock.CateM. tetraphylla. Originated on the property of William R. Cate, Malibu,Calif. Nuts medium to large. Shell average thickness. Kernels 40% of nut,cream colored, crisp in texture, flavor good to very good. Ripens in lateOctober and November continuing over a period of 6 to 8 weeks. Treeprecocious, moderately hardy, shows no alternate bearing tendencies. The mostwidely adapted cultivar for commercial use in California.DoradoM. integrifolia. Originated in Hawaii. Introduced by Rancho NuezNursery. Medium-sized, uniform nuts, 7/8 to 1 inch in diameter. Kernelaverages 35% of nut, oil content 75%. Tree medium-tall, upright, attractive.Begins to bear after 5 years, self-harvesting, cold resistant. Veryproductive, often yielding 65 or more pounds of nuts per year.ElimbahOriginated in Australia. Imported into California by E. Westree.Thin shells. Kernel averages 45-50% of nut. Nuts tend to drop year-round.JamesM. integrifolia. Originated in La Habra Heights, Calif. Medium-sized,uniform nuts, about 1 inch in diameter. Kernel averages 40 to 42% of nut,quality high, flavor very good, oil content 75%. Tree very tall, columnar,precocious, often producing after 2 or 3 years. Self-harvesting. Yields moreper acre than any other California cultivar, 60 or more pounds per tree whenmature.KeaauM. integrifolia. Originated in Lawai Valley, Kalaheo, Kauai, Hawaii.Medium-sized nut, averaging about 80 nuts per pound; Shell smooth, mediumbrown, thin. Kernel 42-46% of nut, color light cream, quality good. SeasonAugust to November. Tree moderately vigorous, upright, very productive.KeauhouM. integrifolia. Originated in Kona, Hawaii by W.B. Storey. Mediumto large nut, averaging about 54 nuts per pound. Shell very slightly pebbled,medium-thick. Kernel 37 to 40% of nut, quality tends to vary in differentlocations. Harvest season relatively short, with most of the crop maturingwithin about 3 months. Tree vigorous, yields well, extremely resistant toanthracnose.VistaHybrid. Originated in Rancho Santa Fe, Calif. by Cliff Tanner. Smallto medium-sized nut, 3/4 to 7/8 inch in diameter. Kernel averages 46% ofweight of nut, flavor excellent, oil content 75%. Shell very thin, can becracked in an ordinary hand cracker. Tree medium-sized, pyramidal, begins tobear after 3 years. Self-harvesting. Flowers pink. Recommended for both homegarden and commercial plantings.WaimanaloM. integrifolia. Originated at the Hawaii Agricultural ExperimentStation, Waimanalo, Hawaii. Large nuts, occasionally with twin halves. Shellrelatively thick. Kernel 38-1/2% of nut, flavor good, oil content 75%. Treemedium-sized, pyramidal, productive, begins to bear after 5 years. Producesnuts in large clusters. Resistant to frost and disease. Grows well in coolerclimates, particularly near the ocean. Also yields good crops inland.FURTHER READINGButterfield, Harry M. A History of Subtropical Fruits and Nuts in California.University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station. 1963.California Macadamia Society. Macadamia Nut Trees for California Gardens.Undated.California Macadamia Society. Yearbook 1955 to date.Facciola, Stephen. Cornucopia: a Source Book of Edible Plants. KampongPublications, 1990. pp. 380-381.Hamilton, R. A. and E. T. Fukunaga. Growing Macadamia Nuts in Hawaii.University of Hawaii, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 121. 1959.Ortho Books. All About Citrus and Subtropical Fruits. Chevron Chemical Co.1985. pp. 59-61.Page, P. E., comp. Tropical Tree Fruits for Australia. Queensland Departmentof Primary Industries. 1984. pp. 150-160.Rosengarten, Frederick, Jr. Book of Edible Nuts. Walker and Co. 1984.Samson, J. A. Tropical Fruits. 2nd ed. Longman Scientific and Technical.1986. pp. 282-284.See Index of CRFG Publications, 1969 - 1989and annual indexes ofFruit Gardenerfor additional articles on themacadamia.Here is the list of additional CRFG Fruit Facts.

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